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Table 5 Total amounts (concentration × volume) of amino acids, agmatine, polyamines, and hexose sugars (mg) in amniotic fluid

From: Pre-implantation exogenous progesterone and pregnancy in sheep. II. Effects on fetal-placental development and nutrient transporters in late pregnancy

Nutrient Effect
Treatment Litter size Fetal sex
CO P4 Single Twin Male Female
Amino acid
 Alanine 4.5 ± 1 8.3 ± 2.3 5.9 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 1.5 5.5 ± 1.6 7.1 ± 1.4
 β-Alanine 2.0 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 1.3
 Arginine 2.4 ± 0.6a 4.2 ± 0.8b 3.7 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 0.8
 Asparagine 15.4 ± 3.1 24.4 ± 5.8 23.8 ± 5.3 15.9 ± 3.6 17.1 ± 4 22.6 ± 4.8
 Aspartate 0.60 ± 0.1 0.82 ± 0.2 0.83 ± 0.2 0.59 ± 0.1 0.57 ± 0.1 0.89 ± 0.2
 Citrulline 1.8 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.9 2.2 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1
 Glutamate 6.4 ± 0.6 7.5 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 0.9 6.8 ± 1 6.7 ± 0.9 7.2 ± 1
 Glutamine 6.9 ± 1.8 11.1 ± 3.1 10.1 ± 3.1 7.6 ± 1.9 7.3 ± 2.2 10.9 ± 2.7
 Glycine 8.3 ± 0.6 12.2 ± 2.6 9 ± 1.1 10.6 ± 1.9 8.8 ± 1.4 11.7 ± 2.2
 Histidine 1.3 ± 0.4 2.2 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 2 ± 0.5
 Isoleucine 0.74 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.4 0.99 ± 0.5 0.78 ± 0.3 0.65 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.5
 Leucine 3.2 ± 0.8 4.9 ± 1.5 4.6 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1 4.4 ± 1.3
 Lysine 1.5 ± 0.4 2.8 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 0.9a 1.2 ± 0.3b 0.9 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.6
 Methionine 0.74 ± 0.2 0.95 ± 0.2 0.82 ± 0.2 0.83 ± 0.2 0.59 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.3
 Ornithine 0.34 ± 0.1 0.56 ± 0.2 0.59 ± 0.2 0.32 ± 0.1 0.33 ± 0.1 0.60 ± 0.2
 Phenylalanine 0.70 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.5 0.68 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.4 0.81 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3
 Serine 36.3 ± 4.5 41.7 ± 5.7 37.2 ± 5.1 39.5 ± 4.9 38.2 ± 4.5 39.1 ± 5.8
 Taurine 13.4 ± 3.2 8 ± 1 16 ± 4.1 7.6 ± 1.1 12.1 ± 2.4 9.5 ± 3.4
 Threonine 2.8 ± 0.7 6.4 ± 2.1 5.8 ± 2 3.3 ± 0.9 4.9 ± 1.6 3.4 ± 0.9
 Tryptophan 0.72 ± 0.1 0.86 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.1a 0.61 ± 0.2b 0.67 ± 0.2 0.95 ± 0.2
 Tyrosine 1.7 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.6 2.1 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.6
 Valine 1.9 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 1 2.3 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.8 2.2 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.7
Agmatine and polyamines
 Agmatine 0.14 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.05 0.17 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.03
 Putrescine 0.021 ± 0.002 0.020 ± 0.004 0.028 ± 0.003 0.014 ± 0.002 0.022 ± 0.004 0.019 ± 0.003
 Spermidine 0.12 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.07 0.17 ± 0.04 0.19 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.02a 0.31 ± 0.07b
 Spermine 0.35 ± 0.1 0.15 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.07 0.30 ± 0.1 0.25 ± 0.07 0.29 ± 0.1
Hexose sugars
 Glucose 5.8 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1a 4.4 ± 0.7b 4.5 ± 0.4 7.2 ± 1.4
 Fructose 721.3 ± 75.2 672 ± 178 768.6 ± 134.8 656.9 ± 106.1 666 ± 99.8 763 ± 149.4
  1. Total amounts of nutrients in amniotic fluid from ewes treated with either CO (n = 14) or P4 (n = 10), from either singleton (n = 14) or twin pregnancies (n = 10), and associated with either male (n = 21) or female (n = 13) fetuses. Values represent means ± SEM. Different superscripts within Effect columns are significantly different (P < 0.05)