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Table 3 Concentrations of amino acids, agmatine, polyamines (nmol/mL), and hexose sugars (μmol/L) in fetal plasma

From: Pre-implantation exogenous progesterone and pregnancy in sheep. II. Effects on fetal-placental development and nutrient transporters in late pregnancy

Nutrient Effect
Treatment Pregnancy type Fetal sex
CO P4 Single Twin Male Female
Amino acid
 Alanine 512.8 ± 36.7 492.3 ± 55.6 456 ± 38.6a 545.8 ± 46.6b 500.5 ± 40.5 509 ± 51.6
 β-Alanine 129.6 ± 12.6 121 ± 15.5 144.5 ± 16.5 109.5 ± 9.8 126.8 ± 9.8 124.5 ± 19.9
 Arginine 137.2 ± 14.7 138.4 ± 10.6 135.6 ± 11.1 139.6 ± 14.9 144.6 ± 13.1 127 ± 12.6
 Asparagine 59.4 ± 6.2 54.3 ± 4.8 54 ± 4.7 60 ± 6.5 60 ± 6.2 53 ± 4
 Aspartate 33.1 ± 4.1 32.6 ± 5.4 25.4 ± 3a 39.4 ± 5b 31.6 ± 4.4 34.7 ± 5
 Citrulline 87.3 ± 6.1 93.7 ± 11.7 98.9 ± 9.2 82.3 ± 7.8 87.3 ± 5.9 94.1 ± 12.6
 Glutamate 600.5 ± 58.5 549.9 ± 78.2 507.4 ± 62.9 640.9 ± 66.2 578.5 ± 62.4 578.8 ± 73.5
 Glutamine 232.7 ± 19.1 245.9 ± 25.1 218.5 ± 20.5 255.8 ± 21.5 242.6 ± 19.1 232.2 ± 25.5
 Glycine 556.6 ± 56.7 622.6 ± 68.4 495.5 ± 36.3a 663.6 ± 70.3b 566.2 ± 55.1 613.6 ± 72.3
 Histidine 49.7 ± 3 55.4 ± 5.3 54.2 ± 4.7 50.4 ± 3.5 54.2 ± 3.8 49.1 ± 4.2
 Isoleucine 98 ± 5.6 89.3 ± 8.4 92.8 ± 6.9 95.5 ± 6.9 95.2 ± 6.3 92.8 ± 7.7
 Leucine 198.1 ± 9.9 179.6 ± 17.5 187.2 ± 14.5 192.5 ± 12.7 186.6 ± 13.1 196.1 ± 12.9
 Lysine 116.9 ± 9.5 112.5 ± 14.9 124.3 ± 13.8 106.9 ± 9.7 120.9 ± 11.4 106.1 ± 11.6
 Methionine 26.8 ± 2.3 28.1 ± 3.3 31.5 ± 3.2a 23.7 ± 1.9b 28.5 ± 2.7 25.6 ± 2.6
 Ornithine 123.6 ± 9.8 127.7 ± 19.9 136.6 ± 16.4 115.5 ± 12.4 125.1 ± 12.8 125.8 ± 17.1
 Phenylalanine 104.2 ± 6.1 92.6 ± 7.6 98.9 ± 7.7 99.4 ± 6.3 99.7 ± 6.4 98.4 ± 7.6
 Serine 860.5 ± 72.1 752.5 ± 76.3 697.8 ± 53.7a 915 ± 79.9b 843.7 ± 64.7 768.7 ± 90.6
 Taurine 128.7 ± 13.5 109.4 ± 16.1 134.1 ± 18 108.3 ± 11 123.5 ± 12.2 115.6 ± 18.8
 Threonine 239.9 ± 24.8 205.4 ± 26.7 277.1 ± 30.7a 179.4 ± 13.5b 256 ± 25.5a 178.4 ± 18.5b
 Tryptophan 35.4 ± 2.3 31.1 ± 2.8 36.9 ± 3a 30.6 ± 1.9b 34.6 ± 2.6 31.9 ± 2.4
 Tyrosine 115.5 ± 10.8 100.1 ± 8.9 116.8 ± 13.1 101.9 ± 7.3 103 ± 9.1 117.6 ± 12.1
 Valine 256.8 ± 13.8 218.6 ± 19.3 262.3 ± 18a 220.3 ± 14.3b 244.6 ± 15.7 233.7 ± 18.4
Agmatine and polyamines
 Agmatine 214.5 ± 8.5 231.9 ± 13.7 226.7 ± 9.6 218 ± 11.9 225.4 ± 11.5 219.9 ± 10.5
 Putrescine 8.0 ± 0.8 6.5 ± 1.1 8.8 ± 0.9a 6.1 ± 0.7b 7.9 ± 0.9 6.6 ± 1
 Spermidine 2.0 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.3 1.8 ± 0.3
 Spermine 7.3 ± 0.9 6.3 ± 1.1 7.3 ± 1 6.4 ± 1 7.3 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 0.6
Hexose sugars
 Glucose 1934 ± 212.8 2231 ± 475.4 1722 ± 237.7 2369 ± 374.6 2377 ± 301.4 1532 ± 303
 Fructose 2019 ± 640.9 3212 ± 1166 3836 ± 1260 1437 ± 225 1973 ± 640 3277 ± 1160
  1. Concentrations of nutrients in fetal plasma out of ewes treated with either CO (n = 14) or P4 (n = 10), from either singleton (n = 14) or twin pregnancies (n = 10), and either male (n = 21) or female (n = 13). Values represent means ± SEM. Different superscripts within Effect columns are significantly different (P < 0.05)