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Table 4 Growth measurements and concentrations of plasma biomarkers during the first 50 d of age in calves born to cows classified according to normal body condition score (BCS) (≤ 3.25, NormBCS; n = 30) or high BCS (≥ 3.75, HighBCS; n = 19) at 4 weeks prior to parturition

From: Maternal body condition during late-pregnancy is associated with in utero development and neonatal growth of Holstein calves

Itemc

Maternal BCS

SEM

P-value

HighBCS

NormBCS

BCS

Day

BCS × Day

Body weight, kg

59.6*

63.3

1.33

0.04

< 0.01

0.20

Hip height, cm

85.5

86.1

0.61

0.49

< 0.01

0.70

Hip width, cm

19.7

20.0

0.23

0.28

< 0.01

0.94

Wither height, cm

82.6

83.1

0.52

0.42

< 0.01

0.36

Body length, cm

124

125

1.0

0.86

< 0.01

0.46

Starter intake, kg/d

1.09

1.03

0.03

0.15

< 0.01

0.16

Average daily gain (ADG), kg/d

0.66

0.69

0.04

0.49

Plasma biomarkers

 Energy metabolism

  BHBA, mmol/L

0.10

0.09

0.01

0.13

< 0.01

0.25

  Creatinine, μmol/L

89.7

91.9

1.75

0.33

< 0.01

0.34

  Glucose, mmol/L

6.52

6.48

0.17

0.85

< 0.01

0.63

  NEFA, mmol/L

0.17

0.17

0.01

0.94

< 0.01

0.66

  Urea, mmol/L

4.43

4.52

0.11

0.53

< 0.01

0.06

 Liver function

  AST/GOT, U/L

74.7

71.2

2.08

0.17

< 0.01

0.26

  Cholesterol, mmol/L

1.75*

1.77

0.05

0.78

< 0.01

0.04

  GGT, U/L

86.5

96.6

8.11

0.35

< 0.01

0.24

  Total bilirubin, μmol/L

3.42*

4.22

0.22

0.01

< 0.01

0.11

 Inflammation

  Albumin, g/L

31.4

34.5

0.36

0.89

< 0.01

0.23

  Ceruloplasmin, μmol/L

2.32

2.39

0.11

0.64

< 0.01

0.52

  Haptoglobin, g/L

0.32

0.33

0.02

0.59

< 0.01

0.06

  Myeloperoxidase, U/L

310

340

20.19

0.26

< 0.01

0.90

 Oxidative stress

  Paraoxonase, U/mL

46.0*

40.5

2.02

0.04

< 0.01

0.37

  FRAP, μmol/L

150

160

4.30

0.10

< 0.01

0.07

  NOx, μmol/L

84.7

85.8

7.44

0.91

< 0.01

0.94

  Nitrites, μmol/L

5.07

5.10

0.33

0.94

< 0.01

0.09

  Nitrates, μmol/L

76.2

78.8

7.52

0.79

< 0.01

0.97

  ROM, mg H2O2/100 mL

12.0

11.9

0.48

0.86

< 0.01

0.38

  Retinol, μg/100 mL

16.1

15.3

0.83

0.47

< 0.01

0.44

  Tocopherol, μg/mL

2.73*

2.55

0.20

0.50

< 0.01

0.03

  1. cAST aspartate aminotransferase, BHBA betahydroxybutyrate, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, NEFA nonesterified fatty acids, NOx nitric oxide, ROM reactive oxygen metabolites
  2. *Means differ P < 0.05 between groups due to BCS or BCS×Day