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Table 4 Growth measurements and concentrations of plasma biomarkers during the first 50 d of age in calves born to cows classified according to normal body condition score (BCS) (≤ 3.25, NormBCS; n = 30) or high BCS (≥ 3.75, HighBCS; n = 19) at 4 weeks prior to parturition

From: Maternal body condition during late-pregnancy is associated with in utero development and neonatal growth of Holstein calves

Itemc Maternal BCS SEM P-value
HighBCS NormBCS BCS Day BCS × Day
Body weight, kg 59.6* 63.3 1.33 0.04 < 0.01 0.20
Hip height, cm 85.5 86.1 0.61 0.49 < 0.01 0.70
Hip width, cm 19.7 20.0 0.23 0.28 < 0.01 0.94
Wither height, cm 82.6 83.1 0.52 0.42 < 0.01 0.36
Body length, cm 124 125 1.0 0.86 < 0.01 0.46
Starter intake, kg/d 1.09 1.03 0.03 0.15 < 0.01 0.16
Average daily gain (ADG), kg/d 0.66 0.69 0.04 0.49
Plasma biomarkers
 Energy metabolism
  BHBA, mmol/L 0.10 0.09 0.01 0.13 < 0.01 0.25
  Creatinine, μmol/L 89.7 91.9 1.75 0.33 < 0.01 0.34
  Glucose, mmol/L 6.52 6.48 0.17 0.85 < 0.01 0.63
  NEFA, mmol/L 0.17 0.17 0.01 0.94 < 0.01 0.66
  Urea, mmol/L 4.43 4.52 0.11 0.53 < 0.01 0.06
 Liver function
  AST/GOT, U/L 74.7 71.2 2.08 0.17 < 0.01 0.26
  Cholesterol, mmol/L 1.75* 1.77 0.05 0.78 < 0.01 0.04
  GGT, U/L 86.5 96.6 8.11 0.35 < 0.01 0.24
  Total bilirubin, μmol/L 3.42* 4.22 0.22 0.01 < 0.01 0.11
 Inflammation
  Albumin, g/L 31.4 34.5 0.36 0.89 < 0.01 0.23
  Ceruloplasmin, μmol/L 2.32 2.39 0.11 0.64 < 0.01 0.52
  Haptoglobin, g/L 0.32 0.33 0.02 0.59 < 0.01 0.06
  Myeloperoxidase, U/L 310 340 20.19 0.26 < 0.01 0.90
 Oxidative stress
  Paraoxonase, U/mL 46.0* 40.5 2.02 0.04 < 0.01 0.37
  FRAP, μmol/L 150 160 4.30 0.10 < 0.01 0.07
  NOx, μmol/L 84.7 85.8 7.44 0.91 < 0.01 0.94
  Nitrites, μmol/L 5.07 5.10 0.33 0.94 < 0.01 0.09
  Nitrates, μmol/L 76.2 78.8 7.52 0.79 < 0.01 0.97
  ROM, mg H2O2/100 mL 12.0 11.9 0.48 0.86 < 0.01 0.38
  Retinol, μg/100 mL 16.1 15.3 0.83 0.47 < 0.01 0.44
  Tocopherol, μg/mL 2.73* 2.55 0.20 0.50 < 0.01 0.03
  1. cAST aspartate aminotransferase, BHBA betahydroxybutyrate, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, NEFA nonesterified fatty acids, NOx nitric oxide, ROM reactive oxygen metabolites
  2. *Means differ P < 0.05 between groups due to BCS or BCS×Day