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Table 3 Growth measurements and concentrations of plasma biomarkers at birth in calves born to cows classified according to normal body condition score (BCS) (≤ 3.25, NormBCS; n = 30) or high BCS (≥ 3.75, HighBCS; n = 19) at 4 weeks prior to parturition

From: Maternal body condition during late-pregnancy is associated with in utero development and neonatal growth of Holstein calves

Itema Maternal BCS SEM P-value
HighBCS NormBCS HighBCS NormBCS
Body weight (BW), kg 42.5* 44. 7 0.72 0.63 0.03
Calf BW/Cow BWb 0.048 0.059 0.002 0.001 < 0.001
Hip height, cm 78.8 78.9 0.78 0.61 0.86
Hip width, cm 15.1 15.1 0.20 0.16 0.84
Wither height, cm 76.1 76.8 0.40 0.32 0.20
Body length, cm 111 110 1.0 1.2 0.49
Plasma biomarkers
 Energy metabolism
  BHBA, mmol/L 0.03* 0.05 0.006 0.004 0.01
  Creatinine, μmol/L 170 179 7.20 4.56 0.32
  Glucose, mmol/L 4.56 3.93 0.30 0.21 0.09
  NEFA, mmol/L 0.77* 1.08 0.11 0.08 0.03
  Urea, mmol/L 5.31* 5.97 0.24 0.19 0.04
 Liver function
  AST/GOT, U/L 46.4 51.7 3.97 2.96 0.30
  Cholesterol, mmol/L 0.58 0.64 0.05 0.04 0.32
  GGT, U/L 10.5 9.93 1.08 0.83 0.70
  Total bilirubin, μmol/L 10.6 13.5 1.17 0.90 0.06
 Inflammation
  Albumin, g/L 28.9* 30.0 0.35 0.27 0.02
  Ceruloplasmin, μmol/L 0.04* 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.01
  Haptoglobin, g/L 0.33 0.33 0.02 0.02 0.76
  Myeloperoxidase, U/L 217 198 20 16 0.47
 Oxidative stress
  Paraoxonase, U/mL 9.71 9.43 2.21 1.89 0.92
  FRAP, μmol/L 250 247 12.63 9.71 0.85
  NOx, μmol/L 202 197 10.72 7.92 0.74
  Nitrites, μmol/L 3.04 3.71 0.31 0.24 0.09
  Nitrates, μmol/L 199 194 10.81 7.99 0.71
  ROM, mg H2O2/100 mL 4.91 5.06 0.26 0.20 0.67
  Retinol, μg/100 mL 8.40 8.43 0.78 0.58 0.97
  Tocopherol, μg/mL 0.39 0.41 0.03 0.02 0.59
  1. aAST aspartate aminotransferase, BHBA betahydroxybutyrate, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, NEFA nonesterified fatty acids, NOx nitric oxide, ROM reactive oxygen metabolites
  2. bRatio of calf birth BW to cow BW at −4 weeks relative to parturition
  3. *Means differ P ≤ 0.05 between