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Table 3 Application of phenolic compounds with major physiological responses in poultry

From: Phenolic compounds as natural feed additives in poultry and swine diets: a review

Phenolic compounds Study design Main findings Reference
Broilers
 Polyphenol Type: Ross 308-male
dose: 0, 20, 40, 60 g/kg
source: grape pomace (Vitis vinifera)
form: powder
duration: 0-24 days
no effects on FI, ADG, and FCR
higher thigh and drumstick weight
lower abdominal fat weight
lower TG, TC, LDL, AST, MDA in plasma
higher SOD, GSH-Px in plasma
higher antibody response in plasma
[129]
 Hydrolysable tannic acid Type: Arbor Acre male
form: powder
dose: 1000 mg/kg
source: commercial (chestnut wood extract-75% tannin)
duration: 0-42 days
higher ADG, final body weight and improve FCR
higher CP retention
pH at 24 h was higher in breast muscle
higher T-AOC, GSH-Px, SOD in serum, breast and thigh muscle
lower serum TC, LDL-C and urea N
[22]
 Essential oil Type: Ross 308
dose: 0.4 mL/L
source: dry herb (lavender flowers)
form: liquid
duration: 0-42 days
higher ADG and final body weight
improved FCR
no effects on TC, TG, glucose, and uric acid concentration in serum
lower Escherichia coli and coliform in ileum
higher probiotic bacteria in ileum
[130]
 Polyphenol (resveratrol) Type: Yellow feather broilers
dose: 200, 350 and 500 mg/kg
source: dry herb (Polygonum cuspidatum)
form: powder
duration: 28-42 days
higher ADG
higher T-SOD, CAT, GSH in serum
lower corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone
lower TC, TG, uric acid, AST, ALT and MDA in serum
[131]
 Polyphenols (resveratrol) Type: Arbor Acres male broilers
dose: 300 and 600 mg/kg
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 0-42 days
higher body weight gain
improve FCR
lower ALT, and AST in serum
higher IgG, IgM, SOD in serum
lower E. coli in cecum
higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth of duodenum
[132]
 Essential oil (cinnamaldehyde) Type: Vencobb-400 broilers
dose: 0.3 g/kg
source: cinnamon bark oil
form: extract
duration: 0-42 days
higher villi height of duodenum, jejunum and ileum
lower number of Escherichia coli in pre-caecal contents
higher antibody titers against NDV
lower TC in serum
higher SOD in serum
no effects on TP, glucose and TG in serum
[133]
 Polyphenols Type: Cobb male broilers
dose: 5, 7.5 and 10 g/kg
source: grape pomace (Vitis vinifera)
form: powder
duration: 3-28 days
no effects on FI, ADG, and FCR
no effects on DM, CP, EE, and GE retention
no effects on inner organs weight
decreased TC in serum
higher IgG in serum
decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of breast meat
lower redness value of meat during storage
[134]
 Polyphenols (resveratrol) Type: Cobb male broilers
dose: 0 and 400 mg/kg
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 0-21 days
higher T-AOC, CAT and lower MDA in breast muscle
lower lightness value, and drip loss of meat
higher redness value and pH-24h of meat
[135]
 Condensed tannins Type: Ross 308
dose: 125, 250, 500, 1000
and 2000 ppm
source: grape seed extract (total polyphenol > 40%)
form: powder
duration: 0-42 days
no effects on growth performance and mortality
lower TC and LDL-C in serum
higher antibody titer against NDV
decrease MDA content in muscle tissue
[136]
 Polyphenols (proanthocyanidins) Type: Cobb-500
dose: 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg
source: commercial (grape proanthocyanidins)
form: powder
duration: 0-42 days
no effects on FI, ADG, and FCR
improved jejunum morphology
higher T-SOD, ALT, ALP, and CRE concentration in serum
lower MDA value in serum
[137]
 Polyphenols (flavonoids, catechins, and epicatechins) Type: Hubbard broilers
dose: 25, 50 and 75 ppm in replace of vitamin E
form: powder
source: grape seed extract
duration: 0-35 days
higher total phenolic contents in breast and leg muscles
higher NDV and IBDV antibody titers
lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in breast and leg muscles
[68]
 Polyphenols Type: Cobb male broilers
dose: 0, 5% and 10%
source: commercial (grape pomace)
form: powder
duration: 0-21 days
no effects ADG, FI and FCR
higher oxidative stability and PUFA content in thigh muscle
lower SFA content in thigh muscle
[138]
 Thyme oil Type: Ross 308 broilers
dose: 0.5 g/kg
source: commercial (T. vulgaris)
form: powder
duration: 0-35 days
lower MDA in duodenal mucosa and kidney
higher IgA in duodenal mucosa
improve intestinal barrier integrity
[139]
 Flavonoids (genistein and hesperidin) Type: Arbor Acre broilers
dose: 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg and mixture (1:4)
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 1-42 days
higher T-AOC, SOD in serum
lower MDA content in serum
lower TC, LDL-C, TG in serum and breast muscle
improved PUFA, and ration of n-6/n-3 fatty acid
[103]
 Essential oil Type: Arbor Acres
dose: 120 ppm
source: oregano, anis and citrus peel tree
form: extract
duration: 0-42 days
lower serum cholesterol
lower ammonia concentration in ileum
higher total polyphenolic compounds and total flavonoids in serum
[140]
 Essential oil (thymol and cinnamaldehyd) Type: Ross broilers
dose: 0.1 g/kg (15 g/t thymol and 5 g/t cinnamaldehyde)
source: commercial blend oil
form: powder
duration: 0-42 days
higher ADG
higher number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in cecum
higher proportion of caecal butyrate
decreased proportion of caecal caecal acetic acid and propionic acid
[141]
 Tannic acid Type: Ross 308
dose: 20 g/kg
source: commercial product
form: powder
duration: 17-27 days
lower body weight and FCR
lower lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum
higher relative weight of intestine
[142]
Laying hens
 Essential oil (peppermint) Type: Bovans Brown laying hens
dose: 0, 74, 148, 222, and 296 mg/kg
source: dry leaf extract (Mentha piperita)
form: liquid
duration: 32-44 weeks
higher FI, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell thickness, and haugh unit
higher CP, EE and P digestibility
higher TP in serum
lower serum cholesterol
[143]
 Essential oil Type: Hy-line Brown layer dose: 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg
source: star anise (Illicium verum)
form: liquid
duration: 29-31weeks
higher CP, OM digestibility
higher metabolic efficiency of lysine, methionine, arginine, and threonine
no effects on DM, EE and GE retention
[144]
 Thymol and carvacrol Type: Bovans-White
dose: 1000 mg/kg each
source: Thymbra spicata and Rosemarinus officinalis extract
form: dry leaf powder
duration: 48-56 weeks
lower TC and TG in serum
lower egg production and egg weight
no effects on FCR, egg shell thickness, yolk color and haugh unit
[145]
 Polyphenols Type: Yueqinhuang laying hens
dose: 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg
source: eucalyptus leaves
form: extract powder
duration: 35-44 weeks
higher egg production, egg mass, egg shell thickness
lower MDA and cholesterol in egg yolk
higher GSH-Px, T-SOD, T-AOC in serum
higher pH at 45 min with higher redness value of meat
lower drip loss of meat
[146]
 Polyphenol Type: Hy-line Brown
dose: 200 mg/kg
source: commercial (tea polyphenol and tea catechins)
form: powder
duration: 65-74 weeks
higher egg production
improved FCR
higher albumen height with haugh unit
higher protein sulfhydryl content of the albumen
lower protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity of albumen
[147]
 Essential oil Type: Lohmann White
form: powder
source: commercial
dose: 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg
duration: 54-65 weeks
no effects on egg production, egg weight, egg quality, FI and FCR
higher CP digestibility
no effects on energy utilization
no effects on SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition in egg yolk
[148]
 Essential oil Type: Hy-line layer
form: fine granulates powder
source: oregano dry herbs
dose: 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg
duration: 30-37 weeks
no effects on egg shell weight, yolk index and haugh unit
lower crypt depth and higher villus height with villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum
higher gene expression on glucose transporter 2, peptide transporter 1, sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 in duodenum and jejunum
[49]
 Essential oil mixture Type: Hy-line White
dose: 0, 100 and 200 mg/kg
source: Thymus vulgaris, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis and Anethum graveolens
form: powder
duration: 40-51 weeks
lower TC, TG, AST, ALT, in serum
lower MDA in serum and liver sample
higher eggshell hardness and thickness
[149]
 Essential oil (peppermint/thyme) Type: Lohmann LSL-lite
dose: 0 and 1000 mg/kg each
source: dry herb extracts
form: powder
duration: 40-48 weeks
higher egg production, egg mass
lower FCR
higher egg shell thickness, haugh unit
lower serum cholesterol
[150]
 Thyme and fennel Type: Hy-Line White
dose: 0 and 40 mg/kg each
source: dry herbs (Thymus vulgaris and Foeniculum vulgare)
form: alcoholic extracts
duration: 26-38 weeks
higher egg weight and egg mass
higher egg yolk color
lower egg yolk cholesterol
improve egg yolk omega-3 fatty acid
[151]
 Essential oil Type: White leghorn (Lohman)
dose: 24 mg/kg
source: oregano dry herbs
form: powder
duration: 82-106 weeks
higher egg production with lower FCR in forced molted hens
higher SOD value and lower MDA value in liver sample
[125]
 Thymol Type: Hi-sex Brown
source: Thymus vulgaris dry herb
form: powder
dose: 3, 6 and 9 g/kg
duration: 36-52 weeks
no effects on FI, ADG and FCR
higher egg weight
higher SOD, GSH-PX and lower MDA in serum
higher IgG in serum
lower LDL-C in serum
[152]
 Essential oil Type: Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens
dose: 40 mg/kg
source: cinnamon bark
form: powder
duration: 42-50 weeks
higher egg production, egg weight and egg mass
no effects on FI and body weight
no effects on TC,TG, uric acid and albumin content in serum
[153]
 Fennel (anethole, fenchone and estragole) Type: White leghorn
dose: 0, 10 and 20 g/kg
source: fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare)
form: dry fruit powder
duration: 42-46 weeks
lower serum MDA
lower TC and TG in egg yolk
[154]
 Polyphenols Type: Hy-line White (Leghorn)
dose: 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g/kg
source: Echinacea purpurea
form: dry leaf extract powder
duration: 43-53 weeks
higher egg production and egg mass
lower TC, TG, in serum
lower cholesterol in egg yolk
higher HDL in serum
[155]
 Peppermint/ menthol/ menthone/ isomenthone/ menthyl acetate/ cineol Type: Hy-line Brown
dose: 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg
source: dry herb (Mentha piperita)
form: leaves powder
duration: 64-76 weeks
higher FI, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell thickness, haugh unit
lower FCR
lower serum cholesterol
higher TP in serum
[156]
 Essential oil mixture (carvacrol, thymol, 1:8-cineole, p-cymene and limonene) Type: ATAK-S laying hens
dose: 0, 3 and 6 mg/kg
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 52-68 weeks
no effects on FI, egg production, egg weight and FCR
no effects on glucose, TC and TG in serum
no effects on antibody titers against NDV, IB and IBDV
[157]
 Thyme Type: Lohmann LSL-white
dose: 0, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1%
source: dry herbs (Thymus vulgaris)
form: powder
duration: 24-36 weeks
higher egg production with lower FCR
decrease concentration of E. coli in feces
[124]
Other birds
 Polyphenol (resveratrol) Type: quail
dose: 0, 200 and 400 mg/kg
source: dry herbs (Polygonum cuspidatum)
form: powder
duration: 4-16 weeks
no effects on FI, egg production
no effects on vitamin A concentration in serum and egg yolk
higher vitamin E in serum
lower MDA in serum and egg yolk
[158]
 Thymol Type: quail (female)
dose: 2 g/kg (80 mg/bird per day)
source: commercial
form: powder
duration:100-130 days
no effects on corticosterone concentrations in plasma
higher albumen, glucose, globulins, TP in plasma
higher inflammatory responses
higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in blood
[159]
 Essential oil Type: quail breeder
dose: 250 mg/kg
source: dry herbs (Trachyspermum ammi and Anethum graveolens)
form: powder
duration: 8-18 weeks
no effects on egg production
improved FCR
no effects on TG, glucose and HDL in serum
lower TC in serum
higher number of Lactobacillius in cecum
no effects on E. coli number in cecum
[104]
 Phenolic compounds (peppermint) Type: quail
dose: 10, 20, 30 and 40 g/kg
source: dry herbs (Mentha piperita)
form: powder
duration: 7-35 days
no effects of FI and ADG
higher length of small intestine, villus height, villus width, crypt depth, and villus area
higher lactic acid bacteria in ileum
lower Escherichia coli in ileum
no effects of inner organs weight
[160]
 Polyphenols (saponins, flavonoids) Type: Japanese quail
dose: 0, 1%, 3% and 5%
source: dry herbs (Astragalus membranaceus)
form: powder
duration: 0-35 days
higher FI, and weight gain
higher weight of thymus gland and bursa of fabricius
higher IgA, C3, C4 in serum
higher T-AOC, GSH-Px, CAT in serum
higher Lactobacillius and bifidobacterium in intestine
lower Escherichia number in intestine
no effects on TP, TC, TG, AST, and ALT in serum
[161]
 Thymol Type: quail
dose: 0, 2, 4 and 6.5 g/kg
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 85-128 days
lower SFA in egg yolk
higher PUFA in egg yolk
no effects on body weight gain, FI, egg production, and egg weight
[162]
 Polyphenols (anthocyanidins, catechins) Type: duckling (Pekin- female)
dose: 0, 0.1% and 0.2%
source: grape seed extract
form: powder
duration: 0-6 weeks
higher ADG, and final body weight with improved FCR
higher SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, CAT, IgG, IL-2 and lower MDA in serum
lower abdominal fat
lower ileal Escherichia coli but higher ileal Lactobacilli
[52]
 Essential oil (oregano oil) Type: duckling (Cherry valley)
dose: 150 and 300 mg/kg
source: commercial-oregano (5% thymol, 65% carvacrol and 30% carrier)
form: powder
duration:11-42 days
no effects on final body weight, ADG, FI, and FCR
lower number of coliform bacterial in cecum
no effects on TC, TG, AST, ALT, glucose, and TP in serum
[163]
 Essential oil (oregano oil) Type: duckling (Cherry valley)
dose: 100 mg/kg
source: commercial (oregano oil)
form: powder
duration:1-35 days
no effects on ADG, FCR, DM, CP, EE, Ash and GE digestibility
higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in jejunum
higher SOD in serum and T-AOC in jejunum mucosa
lower MDA in serum and liver tissue
decreased mRNA expression of ZO-3 and sIgA
[164]
 Thymol Type: turkey poults
dose: 30 mg/kg
source: commercial extract
form: powder
duration:180-236 days
improved FCR
no effects on ADG, lactic acid bacteria and coliform count in crop, ileum and cecum
lower MDA level in liver, thigh and breast muscle
higher GSH-Px, GST activities in liver, thigh and breast muscle
[165]
 Mixed essential oil Type: turkey
dose: 1 mL/L
source: commercial extract
form: liquid
duration:175-178 days
higher percent of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the thymus and the spleen
higher percent of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and the blood
higher percent of CD4+ CD8+ T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa
[166]
 Mixed essential oil Type: turkey
dose: 0.3 g/kg
source: commercial
form: powder
duration: 0-140 days
no effects on ADG, FCR and carcass weight
lower pH of crop content
higher α-glucosidase in the ileal digesta
no effects on SCFA production in the caeca
[167]