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Table 5 Main effects of experiments including betaine, vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation in dairy cows according to stage of lactation. ↑ = increase effect; ↓ decrease effect

From: Multifaceted role of one-carbon metabolism on immunometabolic control and growth during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period in dairy cattle

Stage Dietary manipulationa Main effectsb Reference
Transition period CON or Bet from close-up until 8 weeks postpartum vs. CON or Bet from dry off until 8 weeks postpartum ↑ Milk yield and milk fat in Bet cows enrolled at dry off
↑ NEFA and BHBA postpartum Bet in cows enrolled at dry off
CON or RP-Bet at 20 g/d from 4 weeks prepartum until 6 weeks postpartum ↑ Feed efficiency (ECM/DMI) with RP-Bet
↑ BW loos postpartum with RP-Bet
↑ BHB at d 7 postpartum with RP-Bet
↑ TPP and plasma globulin with RP-Bet
↓ Plasma glucose with RP-Bet
FA at 0, 120 or 240 mg/500 kg of BW from 1 week prepartum to 1 week postpartum ↑ Milk yield with FA 120 mg/500 kg of BW [105]
FA at 0 or 2.6 g/d and B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d in 2 × 2 factorial design from 3 weeks prepartum to 8 weeks postpartum ↑ Milk yield and milk protein with FA
↓ Milk urea N with B12
↑ Liver phospholipids with B12
Basal diet with restricted Met or basal diet + RP-Met. In each group half received weekly vitamin injections of FA 160 mg + B12 10 mg ↑ Milk and plasma level of FA and B12 with vitamin
↑ Milk yield with vitamin
↑ Milk lactose, milk protein and total solids with vitamin
Mid lactation Bet at 0, 50, 100 or 150 g/d during 30 d ↑ Milk yield and milk fat linearrly with Bet [108]
Bet at 0, 25, 50, or 100 g/d during 16 d ↑ Milk yield with Bet 100 g/d
↓ Milk protein in Bet cows compared with CON
CON, 20 g/d of RP-Met, 45 g/d RP-Bet, or 40 g/d of RP-Chol in limited Met diet during 70 d ↑ Milk yield in RP-Chol
↑ Milk protein in RP-Chol vs. CON or RP-Bet
↑ Milk fat in RP-Chol vs. RP-Met
Bet at 0, 10, 15 or 20 g/d for 8 weeks during heat stress period ↑ DMI with Bet
↑ Milk yield, milk lactose and milk protein with Bet
↑ Plasma cortisol, GPX, SOD and MDA with Bet
↓ Plasma HSP70 with Bet
Bet at 0, 57 or 114 mg/kg of BW for 2 weeks in thermoneutral and 2 weeks in heat stress conditions ↑ Milk yield with Bet 114 mg/kg of BW in thermoneutral conditions
↓ Respiration rate with Bet in heat stress
↑ Rectal temperature with Bet in heat stress
↑ Plasma glucose with Bet 114 mg/kg of BW in heat stress
Basal diet with RP-Met and FA with or without weekly B12 10 mg injections from 4 to 18 weeks of lactation ↑ ECM, milk yield of solids, fat and lactose with B12
↑ Blood hemoglobin and serum vitamin B12 with B12
RP-FA at 0 or 118 mg/d during 90 d ↑ Milk yield, FCM and milk protein with RP-FA
↑ Plasma albumin with RP-FA
Whole lactation FA at 0, 2, or 4 mg/kg of BW from 4 weeks prepartum to 305 d of lactation ↑ Serum and milk folate level with FA
↑ Multiparous milk yield with FA
  1. aRP rumen-protected, Bet Betaine, Met methionine, Chol choline, FA folic acid, B12 vitamin B12, BW body weight, CON control without supplement
  2. bBHBA β-hydroxybutyrate, DMI dry matter intake, ECM energy-corrected milk, FCM fatty-corrected milk, GPX glutathione peroxidase, HSP70 heat shock protein 70, MDA malondialdehyde, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, SOD superoxide dismutase, TPP total plasmatic protein