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Table 4 Biomarkers of inflammatory response, liver function and oxidative status in dairy cows supplemented with methyl donors according to stage of lactation. ↑ = biomarker increase concentration; ↓ biomarker decrease concentration

From: Multifaceted role of one-carbon metabolism on immunometabolic control and growth during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period in dairy cattle

Stage Dietary manipulationa Effect on biomarker concentrationsb Reference
Transition period RP-Met or RP-Chol supply from −21 to 30 d relative to calving ↓ IL-1β and haptoglobin with RP-Met
↑ IL-6 with RP-Met
↑ PON, albumin and cholesterol with RP-Met
↑ Liver GSH and GSR with RP-Met
[25]
RP-Met supply from − 28 to 30 d relative to calving ↓ Haptoglobin with RP-Met
↓ ROM with RP-Met
↑ IL-6 with RP-Met
↑ PON, albumin and cholesterol with RP-Met
↑ FRAP, β-carotene and tocopherol with RP-Met
↑ Liver GSH and GSR with RP-Met
[29]
RP-Met or RP-Chol supply from − 21 to 21 d relative to calving ↑ IL-2 with RP-Met and RP-Chol
↓ IL-6 and TNF with RP-Met and RP-Chol
↑Total antioxidant capacity, GPX and vitamin E with RP-Met and RP-Chol
↓ Total bilirubin, ALP and MDA with RP-Met and RP-Chol
↑ TPP with RP-Chol
↓ GPT and GOT with RP-Chol
↓ BUN with RP-Met
[99]
Met supply (RP-Met or Met-analogue) from − 21 to 30 d relative to calving ↓Ceruloplasmin and SAA with Met
↑ ORAC with Met
[33]
RP-Met or RP-Chol supply from − 21 to 30 d relative to calving ↓ IL-1β after whole blood LPS challenge postpartum with RP-Met
↑ Neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst postpartum with RP-Met
↑ Monocyte phagocytosis with RP-Chol
[100]
RP-Chol at 25 g/d prepartum and 50 g/d postpartum of Chol ions from − 21 to 60 d relative to calving ↓ Liver TLI and TAG with Chol
↓ Liver TAG:glycogen ratio with Chol
↑ Plasma TAG with Chol
[101]
Mid lactation Chol ions at 0, 6.25, 12.5 or 25 g/d through abomasal infusion with restricted intake management during 4 d ↓ Liver CBS activity linearly with Chol
↑ Liver taurine with Chol
↑ Plasma α-tocopherol and β-carotene with Chol
↓ Plasma AST and bilirubin with Chol
↑ PON with Chol
[37]
Dry off RP-Chol at 0, 6.5, 12.9, 19.4 or 25.8 g/d of Chol ions during 15 d with feed-restriction and fat-loading management ↑ Liver lipotropic effects with up to 25.8 g/d of Chol ions in NNB cows
↑ Liver glycogen and TAG with 6.5 g/d of Chol ions in NNB cows
[102]
  1. aRP rumen-protected, Met methionine, Chol choline
  2. bALP alkaline phosphatase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CBS cystathionine β-synthase, FRAP Ferric-reducing ability of plasma, GOT glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, GPT glutamate pyruvate transaminase, GPX glutathione peroxidase, GSH glutathione, GSR glutathione redutase, IL-1β interleukin-1β, IL-2 interleukin-2, IL-6 interleukin-6, LPS lipopolysaccharide, MDA malondialdehyde, NNB negative nutrient balance, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, PON paraoxanase, ROM reactive oxygen metabolites, SAA serum amyloid A, TAG triacylglycerol, TLI total lipid, TNF tumor necrosis factor-α, TPP total plasmatic protein
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