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Table 3 One-carbon metabolism genes, proteins, and enzyme activities in early age of dairy calves and uterine environment. ↑ = gene/protein abundance and enzyme activity increase; ↓ = gene/protein abundance and enzyme activity decrease

From: Multifaceted role of one-carbon metabolism on immunometabolic control and growth during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period in dairy cattle

Stage Dietary manipulationa Tissue/Cellsb Effect on abundance of gene and protein, and enzyme activityc Reference
Calvesd Maternal RP-Met supply for 21 d before calving Liver BHMT, SAHH, and CBS gene abundance at 4 and 14 d of age in Met calves
MAT1A in Met calves, overall
↑ GCLC and GSR at 4 d of age in Met calves
BHMT, SAHH, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, CSAD, CBS, GCLC, GSR with aging until 50 d
DNA methylation might be an important component of the physiologic adaptations of calf liver
↑ BHMT enzyme activity with aging until 28 d of age
[78]
Maternal RP-Met supply for 28 d before calving Liver ↑ BHMT enzyme activity Met calves at 14 d of age
↓ CBS enzyme activity in Met calves, increasing at 14 and 28 d of age
↓ MTR enzyme activity in Met calves at 4 and 50 d of age
MTR, DNMT3A, and BADH gene abundance in Met calves
[79]
Maternal RP-Met supply for 21 d before calving PMNL CBS and CTH gene abundance at birth
GSR gene abundance at birth
CBS, GCLC, GSS, and GPX1 with aging
[96]
Maternal RP-Met supply for 28 d before calving PMNL GPX1 gene abundance in Met calves [97]
Uterine Maternal RP-Met supply for 28 d before calving Placenta ↑ AA and glucose transporter gene abundance with RP-Met
MTOR and RPS6KB1 gene abundance with RP-Met
↑ mTOR activation with RP-Met
[8]
Maternal RP-Met supply for 28 d before calving Placenta ↑ TCA cycle and transsulfuration intermediates in Male calves with RP-Met
↑ MTR activity in Male calves with RP-Met
↑ One-carbon metabolism intermediates in Female calves with RP-Met
DNMT3A gene abundance in Female calves with RP-Met
↓ Global DNA methylation in Female calves with RP-Met
[98]
Maternal RP-Met supply from calving until embryo flushing (around 70 d postpartum) Embryos ↓ Embryonic development genes expression (VIM, IFI6, BCL2A1, TBX15) with RP-Met
↓ Immune response genes expression (NKG7, TYROBP, SLAMF7, LCP1, BLA-DQB) with RP-Met
[12]
  1. aRP rumen-protected, Met methionine
  2. bPMNL polymorphonuclear leukocytes cells
  3. cAA amino acids, BADH betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BCL2A1 BCL2 related protein A1, BHMT betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, BLA-DQB MHC class II antigen, CBS cystathionine β-synthase, CSAD cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, CTH cystathionine-γ-lyase, DNMT1 DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1, DNMT3A DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3α, DNMT3A DNA methyltransferase 3A, DNMT3B DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3β, GCLC glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GPX1 glutathione peroxidase 1, GSR glutathione reductase, GSS glutathione synthase, IFI6 interferon alpha inducible protein 6, LCP1 lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1, MAT1A methionine adenosyltransferase 1A, MTOR mechanistic target of rapamycin, MTR 5-methyltetrahyrdofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, RPS6KB1 ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1, SAHH S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, SLAMF7 signaling lymphocyte-activating molecule family member 7, TBX15 T-box transcription factor15, TCA tricarboxylic acid, TYROBP transmembrane immune signaling adaptor TYROBP, VIM vimentin
  4. dCalves were evaluated from birth to 50 d of age
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