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Table 3 Effect of brewers’ spent grain (BSG) protein hydrolysates or antibiotics on nutrient disappearances and fermentation characteristics in RUSITEC

From: Effects of brewers’ spent grain protein hydrolysates on gas production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community in an artificial rumen fed a high grain diet

Item Treatmentsd SEM P <
Con AlcH FlaH Ant
Nutrient disappearance, %
 DM 76.5a 76.1ab 75.3b 72.7c 0.58 0.01
 OM 77.7a 77.6a 76.5b 74.1c 0.56 0.01
 CP 75.1a 75.4a 73.4b 69.7c 0.63 0.01
 NDF 40.3a 38.7a 38.9a 31.8b 1.86 0.01
 ADF 29.2a 26.8a 27.2a 21.5b 1.88 0.01
 Starch 90.7a 90.8a 89.5b 87.8c 0.50 0.01
Fermentation characteristics
 pH 5.74b 5.78b 5.77b 5.85a 0.02 0.01
 NH3-N, mmol/d 3.66b 4.05a 4.19a 2.57c 0.12 0.01
 Total VFA, mmol/d 54.80a 54.51a 53.63a 48.88b 0.86 0.01
Individual VFA, % of total VFA
 Acetate (A) 30.97a 31.12a 31.67a 29.77b 0.38 0.03
 Propionate (P) 39.33b 39.39b 39.42b 42.98a 0.39 0.01
 Butyrate 20.37a 19.98a 19.20b 16.76c 0.45 0.01
 BCVFAe 2.21a 2.19a 2.19a 1.56b 0.03 0.01
 Valerate 4.25b 4.33b 4.78b 7.12a 0.41 0.01
 Caproate 2.64a 2.77a 2.80a 1.57b 0.17 0.01
 A:P 0.79a 0.79a 0.80a 0.69b 0.01 0.01
  1. a, b, c Least square means within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05)
  2. d Con Control, no antioxidant peptide and no antibiotics, AlcH Alcalase hydrolysates, 10 mg per gram of TMR (DM basis), FlaH Flavourzyme hydrolysates, 10 mg per gram of TMR (DM basis), Ant antibiotics, 0.8 mg monensin + 1 mg tylosin per gram of TMR (DM basis)
  3. e Branched-chain volatile fatty acids (isobutyrate + isovalerate)