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Table 4 Summary of studies in periparturient dairy cows investigating the effects of supplemental methionine or choline on liver, immune system, udder, pancreas, and uterus

From: Role of nutraceuticals during the transition period of dairy cows: a review

Nutraceutical Treatment Period Tissue/Cells Main outcome Reference
RPC 45–75 g/d From − 45 to 63 Liver Reduced liver glycogen and greater plasma glucose concentration [83, 86]
60–75 g/d From − 45 to 63 Liver Increased the rate of triglycerides export with reduced liver TAG accumulation [87]
45–60 g/d From − 45 to 43 Liver Lower NEFA postpartum increase with overall decrease in plasma NEFA concentration [88]
45 g/d From − 41 to 30 Liver Higher plasma α-tocopherol [88]
50–100 g/d From − 21 to 45 Liver Increased serum haptoglobin [89]
50–100 g/d From − 21 to 45 Pancreas Increased serum insulin [83, 89]
60 g/d From −25 to 80 Immune system Lower diseases incidence [80]
60 g/d From − 17 to 21 Udder Higher colostrum IgG and better average daily gain in calves [78]
60 g/d From − 21 to 30 PMNL and monocytes Overall better redox status in PMNL and improved monocytes phagocytosis [90, 91]
RPM 0.07–0.19% DM From − 28 to 60 and in vitro culture Immune system Better inflammatory status, innate immune responsiveness and neutrophil function (both in calves and cows) [92]
0,09% DM From − 28 to 0 Uterus In calves, increased 1-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration pathway, and TCA cycle intermediates [93]
0.08–0,09% DM From − 28 to 0 Uterus Better calves’ adaptation to extrauterine life [84, 94]
0,09–0.1% DM From − 28 to 60 Immune system Better inflammatory and oxidative status [92]
0.07–0.19% DM From − 28 to 60 Liver Increased APP- concentrations (PON, cholesterol, albumin) [92]
0.07–0.19% DM From − 28 to 0 Liver Reduced APP- concentrations (ceruloplasmin, serum-amyloid A) [82]
0,09–0.1% DM From − 28 to 60 Liver Increased antioxidants blood concentrations (β-carotene, tocopherol, glutathione) [92]
0.07–0.19% DM From − 28 to 0 Liver Increased carnitine and glutathione synthesis [82]
  1. RPC rumen protected choline, RPM rumen protected methionine, TAG triacylglycerol, NEFA non-esterified fatty acids, PMNL polymorphonuclear leukocytes, TCA tricarboxylic acid cycle, APP negative acute phase protein, PON paraoxonase