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Table 3 Summary of studies in periparturient dairy cows investigating the effects of supplemental methionine or choline on performances

From: Role of nutraceuticals during the transition period of dairy cows: a review

Nutraceutical Treatment Period, relative to calving Main outcome Reference
RPC 45–200 g/d From − 41 to 140 Higher milk yield [77, 78]
40–60 g/d From − 21 to 90 Higher milk protein [79]
25–200 g/d From − 41 to 63 Higher milk fat [77]
56–60 g/d From − 25 to 80 Greater DMI [80]
RPM 0.07–0.19% DM From − 28 to 60 Higher milk yield [81, 82]
0.09–0.1% DM From − 28 to 60 Higher milk protein [81]
0.09–0.1% DM From − 28 to 60 Higher milk fat [81]
0.06–0.1% DM From − 28 to 140 Greater DMI [81, 83]
0.09% DM From − 28 to 0 Greater calf weight at birth and in first weeks [84]
  1. RPC rumen protected choline, RPM rumen protected methionine, DM and DMI dry matter and dry matter intake, respectively