Skip to main content

Table 7 Feed intake and metabolic total heat production [kJ/(d·BW0.75)] of lactating sows fed high crude protein (HCP; 192.4 g/kg crude protein) and low crude protein (LCP; 140.0 g/kg crude protein) diets and exposed to thermal neutral and heat stress conditionsa

From: Effect of dietary near ideal amino acid profile on heat production of lactating sows exposed to thermal neutral and heat stress conditions

Item Thermal neutral Heat stress
HCP LCP SEMb P-value HCP LCP SEMb P-value
Number of sowsc 6 6 6 6
Feed intake, kg/dd
 Day 4 4.96 4.46 5.23 4.83 0.46 0.536
 Day 8 6.59 5.70 6.63 5.58 0.46 0.109
 Day 14 6.93 6.57 6.97 6.56 0.46 0.524
 Day 18c 7.26 7.80 7.58 6.93 0.46 0.406
Metabolic total heat production
 Nighttime (19:00–07:00)e
  Day 4 563.6 465.7 53.6 0.203 597.5 512.1 43.1 0.092
  Day 8 568.2 533.0 53.6 0.645 589.9 538.9 41.4 0.263
  Day 14 651.9 577.0 53.6 0.329 627.2 603.8 43.5 0.616
  Day 18 612.1 493.7 58.6 0.145 573.6 457.3 41.0 0.013
  Average 599.1 518.8 27.6 0.040 609.6 515.1 31.8 0.006
  SEM§b 28.6 42.8    61.1 16.3   
  Contrastf    Q*, D   
 Daytime (07:00–19:00)e
  Day 4 627.6 618.8 51.5 0.873 677.8 674.9 30.1 0.940
  Day 8 729.7 682.8 51.5 0.393 692.5 658.6 28.5 0.410
  Day 14 779.9 686.6 51.5 0.093 697.5 672.0 28.0 0.529
  Day 18 724.7 664.8 54.4 0.301 711.3 544.8 28.0 < 0.001
  Average 715.5 663.6 39.9 0.065 708.8 625.5 14.6 0.009
  SEM§b 26.3 49.0    17.2 22.2   
  Contrastf L*, Q*, D    L*, Q*, D*   
 Overall 24 h
  Day 4 595.4 542.2 48.1 0.377 643.5 592.0 29.7 0.184
  Day 8 648.9 607.9 48.1 0.494 640.2 597.5 28.5 0.259
  Day 14 715.9 631.8 48.1 0.165 661.5 638.9 28.0 0.542
  Day 18 668.6 579.9 51.9 0.164 641.4 500.0 28.0 < 0.001
  Average 657.3 591.2 32.2 0.033 659.8 571.1 17.6 0.002
  SEM§b 21.5 45.9    38.9 11.3   
  Contrastf    Q*, D*   
  1. aData are least squares means
  2. bMaximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. cOne LCP sow under TN was missing for calorimetry day 18 and one LCP sow under HS completed calorimetry day 18 from 07:00 until 12:00
  4. dFeed intake under TN was fixed and pair fed to counterparts under HS, and thus no SEM and P value were included
  5. eMetabolic total heat production between nighttime and daytime differs under TN and HS conditions (P < 0.01)
  6. fLinear, quadratic contrast and day effect on total heat production along lactation (d 4, 8, 14 and 18) was performed and represented as L, Q, and D, respectively
  7. §Standard error of the means for contrast over days 4, 8, 14 and 18
  8. * Within the same diet, environments differed (P < 0.05)
  9. Within the same diet, environments tended to differ (0.05 < P ≤ 0.10)