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Table 5 Effect of betaine supplementation on subsequent reproductive performance of sows during the summer months (Exp. 1)d

From: Sow performance in response to natural betaine fed during lactation and post-weaning during summer and non-summer months

 Parity 1 and 2Parity 3+SEMP-valuese
Betaine in lactation diets, %
000.20.2000.20.2Parity groupBetaine lactationBetaine post- weaning
Betaine in post-weaning diets, %
Sows, n7683838085808082    
Days to estrus6.736.177.945.795.825.646.245.430.6740.0680.5870.054
Bred within 7 days:weaned0.8420.9160.7830.8500.8940.9130.8880.9270.0360.0260.2560.055
Bred within 14 days:weaned0.8680.9280.8070.8630.9180.9130.9000.9390.0340.0370.2270.127
Overall bred:weanedf0.9741.0000.9400.9130.9880.9751.0000.9880.0180.0150.0590.606
Returns:bred within 14 daysg0.1360.1690.1190.0870.0380.1230.0970.1690.0380.4340.9590.145
Total pigs borni12.55b13.33a,b13.39a,b12.35b14.17a13.30a,b14.46a14.00a0.4620.0010.5110.224
Pigs born alivej11.94b,c12.75a,b,c12.84ab11.56c13.05a,b12.59a,b,c13.20a13.00a,b0.4390.0260.8270.367
Stillborn pigsk0.620.580.550.791.110.711.271.000.1600.0010.1960.286
  1. a,b,cMeans with different superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. dValues represent least squares means of n sows
  3. eThe statistical analysis tested for main effects of betaine supplementation during lactation, post-weaning, or both, parity group and their interactions. The group of placement (1 to 30) was used as the random effect in the analysis of days to estrus, total pigs born, pigs born alive, stillborn pigs, and mummies
  4. fLactation and parity group interaction (P = 0.004)
  5. gLactation and parity group interaction (P = 0.058)
  6. hSows that were weaned and farrowed regardless of the day that were bred
  7. iThree factor interaction (P = 0.087)
  8. jThree factor interaction (P = 0.057)
  9. kPost-weaning and parity group interaction (P = 0.051)