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Table 4 Effect of betaine supplementation during lactation and post-insemination on rectal temperature and respiration ratea

From: Sow performance in response to natural betaine fed during lactation and post-weaning during summer and non-summer months

 Parity 1 and 2Parity 3+SEMP-valuesb
Betaine, %BetaineParity groupInteraction
Item00.200.2    
Summer (Exp. 1)c
 Lactation
  Rectal temperature, °C39.5439.4439.5639.560.1270.6930.5970.718
  Respiration rated65.7762.5881.9074.898.6840.5620.1100.827
 Post-insemination
  Rectal temperature, °C38.5338.4938.4638.530.0760.8250.8510.470
  Respiration rated22.0018.5813.2012.332.0310.3990.0050.614
Non-summer (Exp.2)e
 Lactation
  Rectal temperature, °C39.4139.4339.1939.250.1380.7720.1540.889
  Respiration rated76.2566.8067.4776.245.6360.9520.9540.112
 Post-insemination
  Rectal temperature, °C38.5138.4438.4838.660.1340.6760.4810.325
  Respiration rated20.1323.0920.8818.251.8820.013< 0.0010.247
  1. aFor the lactation period, measurements were taken on day 18 of lactation between 16:00 and 18:00 h. For the post-insemination period, measurements were taken on day 12 post-insemination between 16:00 and 18:00 h
  2. bThe statistical analysis tested for main effects of dietary betaine, parity group, and their interaction. Sow was used as random effect
  3. cEach value represents the least squares mean of 11 sows (44 sows total). For the lactation period, the average temperature, humidity, and heat index of the farrowing room were 28.1 °C (range of 27.3 to 28.7 °C), 72.9% (range of 68.3% to 77.4%) and 31.2 °C (range of 30.0 to 32.5 °C), respectively. Sows were above an environmental temperature and heat index of 26 °C for 100% of the time when measurements were taken. During the post-weaning period, environmental temperature, humidity, and heat index were 27.2 °C (range of 24.2 to 29.2 °C), 63.4% (range of 53.7% to 75%), and 28.7 °C (range of 25.1 to 31.2 °C), respectively. Sows experienced an environmental temperature and heat index over 26 °C for 91.3% and 94.5% of the time
  4. dRespiration rate was measured as the number of flank movements per min
  5. eEach value represents the least squares mean of 16 sows (64 sows total). For the lactation period, average temperature, humidity, and heat index of the farrowing room were 26.8 °C (range of 22.8 to 29.7 °C), 61.8% (range of 47.2% to 78.4%), and 28.2 °C (range of 24.4 to 32.7 °C), respectively. Sows were above an environmental temperature and heat index of 26 °C for 72.0% and 83.7% of the time. During the post-weaning period, the average temperature, humidity, and heat index of the breeding barn were 24.6 °C (range of 22.9 to 27.2 °C), 67.7% (range of 49.7% to 79.8%), and 26.0 °C (range of 23.8 to 29.4 °C). Sows experience environmental temperatures and a heat index of over 26 °C for 22.2% and 38.9% of the time, respectively