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Table 1 Composition of the experimental diets, as fed basisa

From: Sow performance in response to natural betaine fed during lactation and post-weaning during summer and non-summer months

ItemDietb
LactationPost-weaning
Ingredient, %
 Corn, medium grind45.91547.025
 Soybean meal, 46.5% CP32.14.0
 Rice bran1015
 Wheat middlings630
 Poultry fat2.350
 Limestone1.121.45
 Monocalcium phosphate, 21% P0.9850.870
 Potassium, magnesium sulfatec0.500.50
 Salt0.400.40
 Sow vitamin-mineral premixd0.200.20
 Choline chloride, 60%0.1250.125
 Anti-caking aide0.1000.100
 Organic mineral source [Zn-Mn-Cu]f0.0750.075
L-Lysine0.0500.150
L-Threonine0.0350.075
DL-Methionine0.0150.000
 Iron oxideg0.0300.030
Calculated nutrient composition
 ME, Mcal/kg3.303.04
 CP, %21.1712.90
 Lysine, %1.170.64
 Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %1.050.56
 Standardized ileal digestible Lys/ME, g/Mcal3.311.82
 Standardized ileal digestible Met+Cys:Lys0.560.69
 Ca, %0.820.85
 Available P, %0.400.44
 Choline, g/kg1.901.15
  1. aDiets were formulated to exceed NRC (2012) requirements
  2. bTo create betaine added diets, natural betaine (Vistabet® 96, AB Vista, Malborough, UK) was added at 0.2% at the expense of corn
  3. cDynamate (Mosaic, Plymouth, MN). Added as a laxative
  4. dSupplied per kg of complete diet: vitamin A, 11,023 IU; vitamin D3, 1764 IU; vitamin E, 51 IU; vitamin K, 4.4 mg; vitamin B12, 0.044 mg; riboflavin, 8.8 mg; d-pantothenate, 26.5 mg; niacin 55.1 mg; thiamine, 3.3 mg; pyridoxine, 3.3 mg; folic acid, 1.21 mg; biotin, 0.28 mg; Zn, 125 mg; Fe, 100 mg; Mn, 50 mg; Cu, 25.0 mg; I, 0.7 mg; Se, 0.3 mg; phytase, 661 FTU (Phyzyme, Danisco A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark), and chromium, 0.4 mg/kg
  5. eDry anti-caking aid and non-nutritive carrier (KALLSIL, Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA)
  6. fSupplied per kg of complete diet: Zn, 50 mg from Zn amino acid complex, Mn, 20 mg from Mn amino acid complex, and Cu, 10 mg from Cu amino acid complex (Availa, Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN)
  7. gUsed to color code diets. Diet with 0% betaine contained Fe3O4 (black) and diet with 0.2% betaine contained Fe2O3 (red)