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Table 8 Effect of amount and source of dietary copper on plasma enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of weanling pigs

From: Optimal dietary copper requirements and relative bioavailability for weanling pigs fed either copper proteinate or tribasic copper chloride

  Copper source1 Copper level, mg/kg Pooled SEM P-value
0 20 40 80 160 200 Treatment Linear Quadratic
ALP, U/100 mL TBCC 1.68d 1.78d 2.05c 2.36b 2.94a 3.00a 0.06 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
CuPro 1.68e 1.91d 2.25c, * 2.80b, * 3.05a 0.05 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
CER, U/mL TBCC 57.34e 73.12d 76.26cd 80.12bc 83.27ab 85.90a 1.05 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
CuPro 57.34c 78.91b, * 83.67ab, # 85.35ab, * 88.74a, * 2.13 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Cu/Zn SOD, U/mL TBCC 121.76b 135.09ab 134.96ab 139.82ab 146.71a 145.34a 5.23 0.026 0.002 0.003
CuPro 121.76c 133.97bc 140.68abc 149.85ab, * 154.82a 4.99 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
GSH-Px, U/mL TBCC 730.31c 729.40c 741.17b 750.61a 748.72a 746.85a 1.18 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
CuPro 730.31c 732.63bc, # 738.90b 756.35a 757.54a, * 1.87 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
MDA, nmol/mL TBCC 2.36a 2.31ab 2.17abc 1.81bc 1.78c 1.84bc 0.12 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001
CuPro 2.36a 2.11ab 1.89bc, * 1.79bc 1.75c 0.08 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
T-AOC, U/mL TBCC 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.06 0.706 0.100 0.233
CuPro 0.61 0.65 0.66 0.71 0.72 0.04 0.442 0.072 0.148
  1. a-c Means within a row without a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05)
  2. * different from the corresponding TBCC group at the same supplemented copper level, P < 0.05
  3. # tend to be different from the corresponding TBCC group at the same supplemented copper level, 0.05 < P < 0.10
  4. 1TBCC tribasic copper chloride, CuPro copper proteinate
  5. ALP alkaline phosphatase, CER ceruloplasmin, Cu/Zn SOD Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, GSH-Px glutathione peroxidase, MDA malondialdehyde, T-AOC total antioxidant capability