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Table 5 Mammary gland expression (arbitrary units) of genes for endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and biogenesis, and cell differentiation and turnover in dairy cows receiving abomasal infusions of saline (control; C), glucose (GG), and palm olein (LG) at low (LAA) and high (HAA) essential amino acid levels for 5 d1

From: Impact of post-ruminally infused macronutrients on bovine mammary gland expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis measured in RNA isolated from milk fat

  Treatment2 SEM  P-value3
  LAA-C LAA-GG LAA-LG HAA-C HAA-GG HAA-LG   GG LG AA GG × AA LG × AA
CASP3 1.14 0.98 0.81 1.24 1.07 1.13 0.253 0.44 0.30 0.35 0.97 0.62
CCND1 1.91 1.75 0.90 1.59 1.07 3.58 1.317 0.80 0.71 0.45 0.89 0.26
CDC42BPA 1.13ab 2.14a 1.07b 1.55ab 1.53ab 1.17ab 0.240 0.06 0.38 0.31 0.05 0.53
DDIT3 1.89 1.76 2.42 1.79 2.83 2.12 1.265 0.36 0.39 0.44 0.25 0.84
DDIT4 1.22 1.49 0.67 0.96 0.88 1.74 0.484 0.84 0.81 0.64 0.70 0.17
HSPA5 1.09 1.24 1.17 1.14 1.62 1.22 0.385 0.28 0.95 0.21 0.46 0.89
MYC 1.07 1.22 1.06 1.12 1.65 1.37 0.253 0.10 0.56 0.08 0.35 0.51
PPP1R15A 1.08 1.11 0.95 1.13 0.97 1.04 0.185 0.60 0.40 0.85 0.44 0.89
RPS6 1.10 1.63 0.97 1.29 1.41 0.78 0.197 0.14 0.14 0.35 0.34 0.38
RPL15 1.08 1.11 0.99 1.13 0.97 1.04 0.190 0.61 0.50 0.74 0.46 0.98
XBP1
 Spliced 1.03 0.80 0.91 1.45 1.47 1.23 0.162 0.50 0.26 < 0.01 0.41 0.74
 Unspliced 1.02 0.80 0.78 1.25 0.96 0.79 0.118 0.08 0.02 0.57 0.81 0.45
 Spliced/unspliced 1.03 1.10 1.25 1.22 1.56 1.77 0.168 0.26 0.04 0.01 0.45 0.36
  1. a,bMeans within a row with no common superscripts differ (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. 1Values are least-squares means from milk fat collected on d 5 of each period. Fold changes in gene expression from RNA captured in milk fat globules relative to LAA-C were calculated by the 2-ΔΔCt method after normalizing to RPS9
  3. 2LAA-C, 0.9% saline; LAA-GG, 1319 g/d glucose; LAA-LG, 676 g/d palm olein; HAA-C, 844 g/d of a complete EAA mixture in the same profile and amount as found in 1.5 kg casein; HAA-GG, 1319 g/d glucose + 844 g/d EAA; HAA-LG, 676 g/d palm olein + 844 g/d EAA. Infusions of LAA-GG, LAA-LG, and HAA-C supplied 20.5 MJ/d, and HAA-GG and HAA-LG supplied 41.0 MJ/d. For all treatments n = 6
  4. 3GG = effect of energy from glucose; LG = effect of energy from fat; AA = effect of protein level