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Table 7 The relative values between dietary gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) of sows fed Control (CON; 187.4 g/kg crude protein), Optimal (OPT; 137.8 g/kg crude protein) or Optimal + Leucine (OPTLEU; 142.5 g/kg) diets between day 4 and 8 of lactation (early lactation) and between day 14 and 18 of lactation (peak lactation)1

From: Reduced protein diet with near ideal amino acid profile improves energy efficiency and mitigate heat production associated with lactation in sows

ItemDietSEM2P-value
CONOPTOPTLEUOPT vs. CONOPT LEU vs. CONOPTLEU vs. OPT
Early lactation (day 4 to 8) 
 Number of sows121111    
DE/GE, %
 Analyzed88.387.285.20.40.162< 0.010.007
 Calculated87.383.683.7    
ME/DE, %
 Analyzed97.798.598.20.40.3240.6560.836
 Calculated96.097.097.0    
NElactation/ME, %3
 Analyzed51.449.758.94.80.9670.5070.380
 Calculated74.875.875.7    
NEmilk/ME, %457.564.465.04.30.5000.4480.996
Peak lactation (day 14 to 18)
 Number of sows111111    
DE/GE, %
 Analyzed88.387.285.20.40.162< 0.010.007
 Calculated87.383.683.7    
ME/DE, %
 Analyzed97.598.798.00.40.0630.6350.327
 Calculated96.097.097.0    
NElactation/ME, %3
 Analyzed48.063.0*56.24.80.0920.4680.584
 Calculated74.875.875.7    
NEmilk/ME, %451.972.463.54.40.0080.1670.339
  1. 1Data are least squares means
  2. 2Maximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. 3\( {\mathrm{NE}}_{\mathrm{lactation}}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{kg}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \right)=\frac{\mathrm{Milk}\ \mathrm{energy}\ \mathrm{output}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)-\mathrm{Milk}\ \mathrm{energy}\ \mathrm{from}\ \mathrm{body}\ \left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)}{\mathrm{Daily}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \mathrm{intake}\left(\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{d}\right)} \)
  4. 4\( {\mathrm{NE}}_{\mathrm{milk}}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{kg}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \right)=\frac{\mathrm{Milk}\ \mathrm{energy}\ \mathrm{output}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)}{\mathrm{Daily}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \mathrm{intake}\left(\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{d}\right)} \)
  5. *Main effect of period (early and late) was significant (P < 0.05).