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Table 6 Dietary energy partitioning of sows fed Control (CON; 187.4 g/kg crude protein), Optimal (OPT; 137.8 g/kg crude protein) or Optimal + Leucine (OPTLEU; 142.5 g/kg) diets between day 4 and 8 of lactation (early lactation) and between day 14 and 18 of lactation (peak lactation)1

From: Reduced protein diet with near ideal amino acid profile improves energy efficiency and mitigate heat production associated with lactation in sows

ItemDietSEM2P-value
CONOPTOPTLEUOPT vs. CONOPT LEU vs. CONOPTLEU vs. OPT
Early lactation (day 4 to 8)
 Number of sows121111   
 Feed intake, kg/d4.94.94.60.100.8990.1020.135
Gross energy (GE), MJ/kg
 Analyzed17.2417.1017.33
 Calculated17.2217.5817.57    
Digestible energy (DE), MJ/kg
 Analyzed15.2214.9014.770.100.0620.0060.571
 Calculated15.0314.7014.71    
Metabolizable energy (ME), MJ/kg
 Analyzed14.8414.6414.520.200.7660.5070.904
 Calculated14.4414.2614.26    
Corrected net energy (NEc), MJ/kg311.5611.3612.630.690.9770.5110.405
 NElactation47.657.288.570.710.9280.6250.417
 NEmaintenance53.914.074.160.150.5360.2330.822
 Calculated10.8010.8010.80    
Peak lactation (day 14 to 18)
 No. of sows111111    
 Feed intake, kg/d6.86.76.30.10.8650.0340.049
Gross energy (GE), MJ/kg
 Analyzed17.2417.1017.33
 Calculated17.2217.5817.57    
Digestible energy (DE), MJ/kg
 Analyzed15.2214.9014.770.100.0620.0060.571
 Calculated15.0314.7014.71    
Metabolizable energy (ME), MJ/kg
 Analyzed14.8114.6714.450.200.8870.4270.709
 Calculated14.4414.2614.26    
Corrected net energy (NEc), MJ/kg310.01*12.1611.250.690.0870.4180.623
 NElactation47.139.26*8.130.710.1050.5840.506
 NEmaintenance52.88*2.933.140.150.9520.2210.349
 Calculated10.8010.8010.80    
  1. 1Data are least squares means; energy is presented as MJ/kg feed
  2. 2Maximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. 3 NEc(MJ/kg feed ) = NEmilk(MJ/kg feed) + NEmaintenance(MJ/kg feed). NE was higher (P < 0.05) than calculated NE in OPTLEU diet during early lactation and tended to be higher (P = 0.057) in OPT diet during peak lactation
  4. 4 \( {\mathrm{NE}}_{\mathrm{lactation}}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{kg}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \right)=\frac{\mathrm{Milk}\ \mathrm{energy}\ \mathrm{output}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)-\mathrm{Milk}\ \mathrm{energy}\ \mathrm{from}\ \mathrm{body}\ \left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)}{\mathrm{Daily}\ \mathrm{feed}\ \mathrm{intake}\left(\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{d}\right)} \). NElactation was lower than (P < 0.01) calculated NE in each experimental diet during both early and peak lactation
  5. 5\( {\mathrm{NE}}_{\mathrm{maintenane}}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{kgfeed}\right)=\frac{0.310\times {\mathrm{BW}}^{0.75}\left(\mathrm{MJ}/\mathrm{d}\right)}{\mathrm{Daily}\kern0.34em \mathrm{feed}\kern0.34em \mathrm{intake}\left(\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{d}\right)} \)
  6. *Main effect of period (early and late) was significant (P < 0.05).