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Table 4 Energy balance of sows fed Control (CON; 187.4 g/kg crude protein), Optimal (OPT; 137.8 g/kg crude protein) or Optimal + Leucine (OPTLEU; 142.5 g/kg) diets between day 4 and 8 of lactation (early lactation) and between day 14 and 18 of lactation (peak lactation)1

From: Reduced protein diet with near ideal amino acid profile improves energy efficiency and mitigate heat production associated with lactation in sows

ItemDietSEM2P-value
CONOPTOPTLEUOPT vs. CONOPT LEU vs. CONOPTLEU vs. OPT
Early lactation (day 4 to 8)
 Number of sows121111    
Input
 Feed intake, kg/d4.94.94.60.20.9810.4150.530
 Energy intake, MJ/d84.6883.2779.823.530.9370.4750.690
 Energy absorbed, MJ/d74.5272.4067.813.360.8690.2680.536
Output, kg/d
 Feces (dry matter basis)0.520.540.590.060.9800.7160.827
 Urine (as-is)10.684.665.491.680.0410.0870.930
 Milk (as-is)8.828.869.510.850.9990.7620.789
Energy concentration, MJ/kg
 Feces (dry matter basis)19.4120.2020.100.13< 0.001< 0.0010.756
 Urine (as-is)0.220.260.260.050.7660.7910.999
 Milk (as-is)4.725.104.750.210.1700.9890.232
Energy output, MJ/d
 Feces10.0810.8811.791.030.8470.4770.808
 Urine1.681.101.230.280.3110.4810.948
 Milk41.3545.3844.743.710.7180.7910.992
Energy for maintenance, MJ/d325.9426.7626.020.590.4420.9920.502
Total energy retention, MJ/d446.9244.6640.373.570.9260.1130.222
Maternal energy retention, MJ/d55.84−0.97−1.833.930.4340.3520.987
Peak lactation (day 14 to 18)
 Number of sows111111    
Input
 Feed intake, kg/d6.8*6.7*6.3*0.20.9750.1690.242
 Energy intake, MJ/d116.79*114.95*109.64*3.500.8980.2160.418
 Energy absorbed, MJ/d102.84*100.22*93.08*3.340.8110.0730.230
Output, kg/d
 Feces (dry matter basis)0.72*0.74*0.81*0.060.9690.4630.605
 Urine (as-is)12.04*5.646.141.680.0290.0470.974
 Milk (as-is)11.68*13.93*12.13*0.850.0770.8930.178
Energy concentration, MJ/kg
 Feces (dry matter basis)19.4120.2020.100.13< 0.001< 0.0010.756
 Urine (as-is)0.260.250.310.050.9730.7500.613
 Milk (as-is)4.455.034.810.210.0270.2130.562
Energy output, MJ/d
 Feces13.85*14.87*16.33*1.030.7660.2230.581
 Urine2.50*1.291.770.280.0120.1630.446
 Milk51.76*70.21*58.09*3.730.0050.4610.072
Energy for maintenance, MJ/d326.2626.2626.310.590.9990.9970.996
Total energy retention, MJ/d474.15*72.51*65.06*3.540.9260.1130.222
Maternal energy retention, MJ/d522.51*2.267.053.920.0030.0260.668
  1. 1Data are least squares means
  2. 2Maximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. 3Energy required for maintenance (MJ/d) was calculated as 0.42 MJ/kg0.75 [13]
  4. 4Total energy retention = energy intake-fecal energy-urinary energy-maintenance energy
  5. 5Maternal energy retention = energy intake-fecal energy-urinary energy-maintenance energy-milk energy
  6. *Main effect of period (early and late) was significant (P < 0.05)
  7. Main effect of period (early and late) tended to be significant: urinary energy output (OPTLEU P = 0.054); maternal energy retention (OPTLEU P = 0.088)