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Table 3 Sow and litter growth performance of sows fed Control (CON; 187.4 g/kg crude protein), Optimal (OPT; 137.8 g/kg crude protein) or Optimal + Leucine (OPTLEU; 142.5 g/kg) diets over a 21-day lactation period1

From: Reduced protein diet with near ideal amino acid profile improves energy efficiency and mitigate heat production associated with lactation in sows

ItemDietSEM2P-value
CONOPTOPTLEUOPT vs. CONOPT LEU vs. CONOPTLEU vs. OPT
Number of sows181917    
Body protein day 13, kg38.738.539.01.50.9970.9620.937
Body protein day 213, kg38.738.339.41.40.9520.8760.719
Protein mobilization4, g/d5.5−12.821.821.00.8030.8470.497
Protein tissue mobilization5, g/d27.5−64.0109.0105.00.8030.8470.497
Body lipid day 13, kg48.151.251.62.00.5480.4770.985
Body lipid day 213, kg46.244.849.42.00.8560.4650.246
Lipid mobilization4, g/d−88.5− 314.1*− 113.974.60.1430.9680.207
Lipid tissue mobilization5, g/d−106.2− 376.9*− 136.789.50.1430.9680.207
Sow BW day 1, kg24624925270.9210.7870.953
Sow BW day 21, kg24424125170.9310.7240.518
Calculated BW change6, kg−1.6−9.3−0.6    
Actual BW change, kg−1.6−8.3*−0.63.00.2820.9690.216
  1. 1Data are least squares means
  2. 2Maximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. 3Body protein and lipid on day 1 and 21 were predicted based on sow body weight (BW) and backfat loss [13]
  4. 4Protein and lipid mobilization represent body protein and lipid loss without associated water, and the values were predicted based on sow body weight (BW) and backfat loss [13]
  5. 5Protein and lipid tissue mobilization represent body protein and lipid loss including the associated water as follows: 1 g of protein is associated with 4 g of water in 5 g of tissue and 1 g of fat is associated with 0.2 g of water in 1.2 g of tissue [16]
  6. 6Calculated BW change (g) = (protein tissue mobilization + lipid tissue mobilization) × lactation length (21 day)
  7. *BW change (P = 0.02) and lipid (tissue) mobilization (P < 0.01) differed from 0