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Table 3 Sow and litter growth performance of sows fed Control (CON; 187.4 g/kg crude protein), Optimal (OPT; 137.8 g/kg crude protein) or Optimal + Leucine (OPTLEU; 142.5 g/kg) diets over a 21-day lactation period1

From: Reduced protein diet with near ideal amino acid profile improves energy efficiency and mitigate heat production associated with lactation in sows

Number of sows181917    
Body protein day 13, kg38.738.539.01.50.9970.9620.937
Body protein day 213, kg38.738.339.41.40.9520.8760.719
Protein mobilization4, g/d5.5−12.821.821.00.8030.8470.497
Protein tissue mobilization5, g/d27.5−64.0109.0105.00.8030.8470.497
Body lipid day 13, kg48.
Body lipid day 213, kg46.244.849.42.00.8560.4650.246
Lipid mobilization4, g/d−88.5− 314.1*− 113.974.60.1430.9680.207
Lipid tissue mobilization5, g/d−106.2− 376.9*− 136.789.50.1430.9680.207
Sow BW day 1, kg24624925270.9210.7870.953
Sow BW day 21, kg24424125170.9310.7240.518
Calculated BW change6, kg−1.6−9.3−0.6    
Actual BW change, kg−1.6−8.3*−
  1. 1Data are least squares means
  2. 2Maximum value of the standard error of the means
  3. 3Body protein and lipid on day 1 and 21 were predicted based on sow body weight (BW) and backfat loss [13]
  4. 4Protein and lipid mobilization represent body protein and lipid loss without associated water, and the values were predicted based on sow body weight (BW) and backfat loss [13]
  5. 5Protein and lipid tissue mobilization represent body protein and lipid loss including the associated water as follows: 1 g of protein is associated with 4 g of water in 5 g of tissue and 1 g of fat is associated with 0.2 g of water in 1.2 g of tissue [16]
  6. 6Calculated BW change (g) = (protein tissue mobilization + lipid tissue mobilization) × lactation length (21 day)
  7. *BW change (P = 0.02) and lipid (tissue) mobilization (P < 0.01) differed from 0