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Table 4 Affected biochemical compounds along with their fold change (FC) values in liver tissue harvested 10 days prior to parturition from Holstein cows with (KET) or without (OVE) clinical ketosis during the first week postpartum. Both groups of cows were fed a diet containing 1.54 Mcal/kg of dry matter and 15.0% crude protein from −21 days prepartum to calving, and a common lactation diet containing 1.75 Mcal/kg of dry matter and 17.5% crude protein.

From: Hepatic metabolomics and transcriptomics to study susceptibility to ketosis in response to prepartal nutritional management

CompoundPathway or categoryKET vs. OVE
FCP-value
GlycylvalineDipeptide−1.410.01
LeucylaspartateDipeptide−1.460.01
TyrosylglycineDipeptide−1.300.03
GlycylisoleucineDipeptide−1.490.03
XylitolPentose metabolism−1.340.04
1-PalmitoylglycerophosphoglycerolLysolipid−1.370.06
GlycochenodeoxycholatePrimary bile acid metabolism2.320.06
Glucose-6-phosphateGlycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and pyruvate metabolism−1.240.07
1-MethylimidazoleacetateHistidine metabolism1.620.07
D-Erythro-C16-ceramideaSphingolipid metabolism−1.240.07
1-NonadecanoylglycerophosphocholineLysolipid−3.790.08
3-DehydrocarnitineCarnitine metabolism−1.150.08
RibulosePentose metabolism−1.290.09
ButyrylglycineFatty acid metabolism (also BCAA metabolism)1.340.09
TetradecanedioateFatty acid, dicarboxylate−1.400.09
KynurenineTryptophan metabolism−2.120.10
1-OleoylglycerophosphoethanolamineLysolipid−1.540.10
Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholinePhospholipid metabolism1.170.10
  1. aAlso known as N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine