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Table 4 Affected biochemical compounds along with their fold change (FC) values in liver tissue harvested 10 days prior to parturition from Holstein cows with (KET) or without (OVE) clinical ketosis during the first week postpartum. Both groups of cows were fed a diet containing 1.54 Mcal/kg of dry matter and 15.0% crude protein from −21 days prepartum to calving, and a common lactation diet containing 1.75 Mcal/kg of dry matter and 17.5% crude protein.

From: Hepatic metabolomics and transcriptomics to study susceptibility to ketosis in response to prepartal nutritional management

Compound Pathway or category KET vs. OVE
FC P-value
Glycylvaline Dipeptide −1.41 0.01
Leucylaspartate Dipeptide −1.46 0.01
Tyrosylglycine Dipeptide −1.30 0.03
Glycylisoleucine Dipeptide −1.49 0.03
Xylitol Pentose metabolism −1.34 0.04
1-Palmitoylglycerophosphoglycerol Lysolipid −1.37 0.06
Glycochenodeoxycholate Primary bile acid metabolism 2.32 0.06
Glucose-6-phosphate Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and pyruvate metabolism −1.24 0.07
1-Methylimidazoleacetate Histidine metabolism 1.62 0.07
D-Erythro-C16-ceramidea Sphingolipid metabolism −1.24 0.07
1-Nonadecanoylglycerophosphocholine Lysolipid −3.79 0.08
3-Dehydrocarnitine Carnitine metabolism −1.15 0.08
Ribulose Pentose metabolism −1.29 0.09
Butyrylglycine Fatty acid metabolism (also BCAA metabolism) 1.34 0.09
Tetradecanedioate Fatty acid, dicarboxylate −1.40 0.09
Kynurenine Tryptophan metabolism −2.12 0.10
1-Oleoylglycerophosphoethanolamine Lysolipid −1.54 0.10
Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine Phospholipid metabolism 1.17 0.10
  1. aAlso known as N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine