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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Effects of long-chain fatty acid supplementation on the growth performance of grower and finisher pigs: a meta-analysis

Study Year Genetic background N a Initial BWb, kg Final BWb, kg Initial phase Supplemental substancec Energy differenced Basal diet Concentration Saturation ADG, g/de ADFI, g/de G:F ratioe
T CT T CT T CT
Engel et al. [18] 2001 PIC L326 boars × C15 sows 36 60 110 Finisher Choice white grease Corn-soybean High (4%) Unsaturated 980 920 3140 3130 0.3 0.31
     60 110 Finisher Poultry fat Corn-soybean High (4%) Unsaturated 930 920 3140 3130 0.31 0.31
Thiel-Cooper et al. [19] 2001 Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc × Hampshire 16 26.3 116 Grower Conjugated linoleic acid N.A. Corn-soybean Low (1%) Unsaturated 1019* 942 2634 2683 0.384* 0.352
Sun et al. [20] 2004 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire 36 63.8 98.9 Finisher Conjugated linoleic acid Corn-soybean High (4%) Unsaturated 890** 780 2700** 2510 0.328** 0.312
Benz et al. [21] 2007 TR4 × 1050 40 54.39 122.47 Finisher Choice white grease Corn-soybean High (5%) Unsaturated 994.26 921.62 2651.36 2596.88 0.374 0.356
Apple et al. [22] 2008 Mating of line 348 sows to EB boars 108 77.9 108.9 Finisher Beef tallow Corn-soybean High (5%) Saturated 810 780 2060 2030 0.4 0.39
Eastwood et al. [23] 2009 Camborough Plus sows × C337 boars 100 32 115 Grower Flaxseed meal Corn-soybean High (5%) Unsaturated 937 948 2648 2657 0.36 0.36
Jaturasitha et al. [24] 2009 Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace 300 35 90 Grower Tuna oil Corn-soybean Low (1%) Unsaturated 707 645 2000 1990 0.354 0.324
Juarez et al. [25] 2010 Commercial pigs 16 31 84 Grower Co-extruded flaxseed Corn-soybean High (5%) Unsaturated 1000 940 2600* 2460 0.39* 0.38
Benz et al. [26] 2011 327 × PIC C22 48 44 123 Finisher Choice white grease Corn-soybean High (5%) Unsaturated 1040 990 2960 3150 0.38** 0.35
     44 123 Finisher Soybean oil Corn-soybean High (5%) Unsaturated 1070** 990 3110 3150 0.39** 0.35
Rickard et al. [27] 2012 PIC 337 24 100.68 136 Finisher Conjugated linoleic acid DDGS Low (0.6%) Unsaturated 1280 1240 3390 3370 0.17** 0.17
Lee et al. [28] 2013 Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc 36 43.7 128.9 Finisher Beef tallow DDGS High (3%) Saturated 980 950 2700 2670 0.37 0.36
     43.7 128.9 Finisher Palm kernel oil DDGS High (3%) Saturated 980 950 2540 2670 0.39 0.36
Wang et al. [29] 2015 Duroc × Landrace × Large 16 60 94.2 Finisher Conjugated linoleic acid DDGS Low (1%) Unsaturated 850 840 2670 2630 0.32 0.32
Stephenson et al. [30] 2016 PIC 327 × 1050 48 45.6 132.17 Grower Beef tallow Corn-soybean High (4%) Saturated 1034 1002 2706 2756 0.384* 0.365
     45.6 132.17 Grower Soybean oil Corn-soybean High (4%) Unsaturated 1056 1002 2760 2756 0.385 0.365
Upadhaya et al. [31] 2017 Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc 60 80.82 110.3 Finisher Conjugated linoleic acid Corn-soybean Low (1%) Unsaturated 839 846 2593 2614 0.323 0.324
Villela et al. [32] 2017 Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace 143 55 90 Finisher Cotton seed oil DDGS High (5%) Unsaturated 1020 970 2560* 2810 0.4* 0.34
     90 120 Finisher Cotton seed oil DDGS High (5%) Unsaturated 920 870 2810* 3050 0.33* 0.28
De Tonnac et al. [33] 2017 Yorkshire × Landrace × Pietrain 23 50.7 115.21 Finisher DHA-rich algae Corn-soybean High (4.1%) Unsaturated 1070 1070 3300 3300 0.357 0.345
Liu et al. [34] 2018 C22 sows × PIC L337 boars 120 73 129.94 Finisher Soybean oil Corn-soybean High (6%) Unsaturated 1170 1155 3221* 3654 0.36* 0.322
     73 129.94 Finisher Choice white grease Corn-soybean High (6%) Unsaturated 1226 1155 3355* 3654 0.367* 0.322
     73 129.94 Finisher Palm oil Corn-soybean High (6%) Saturated 1259 1155 3559 3654 0.357* 0.322
     73 129.94 Finisher Beef tallow Corn-soybean High (6%) Saturated 1222 1155 3399* 3654 0.362* 0.322
Moran et al. [35] 2018 PIC × Goland 144 117.1 140.75 Finisher DHA-rich microalgae Corn-soybean Low (1%) Unsaturated 847.7 838.3 3392 3405 0.25 0.244
  1. aNumber of pigs included in our analyses
  2. bBW body weight
  3. cDHA docosahexaenoic acid
  4. d↑, higher energy density in treatment group; →, similar energy density in treatment and control groups; ↓, lower energy density in treatment group; N.A not applicable
  5. eT treatment, CT control; a significant difference in the trial is indicated by *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01