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Table 1 Ingredient composition of the total mixed rations

From: Nitrogen partitioning and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows with different phenotypic residual feed intake

Ingredient % (DM basis) Nutrient levelsa % of DM
Alfalfa hay 16.1 DM 51.8
Oat hay 7.55 OM 95.5
Corn silage 18.8 CP 16.0
Brewer’s grains 3.47 NDF 32.9
Beet pulp 4.67 ADF 19.0
Cottonseed meal, whole 5.49 NEL, Mcal/kg DM 1.70
Steam-flaked corn 5.57   
Ground corn grain 17.0   
Soybean meal 9.62   
Expanded soybean 2.74   
Fat meal 1.09   
DDGSb 4.62   
CaHPO4 0.11   
NaCl 0.21   
Limestone 0.36   
NaHCO3 0.34   
MgO 0.13   
Premixc 2.12   
  1. aDM dry matter, OM organic matter, CP crude protein, NDF neutral detergent fiber, ADF acid detergent fiber, NEL, net energy for lactation, estimated according to the NRC recommendation [13]
  2. bDGGS Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles
  3. cPremix, formulated to provide (per kg of DM): vitamin A ≥ 600 kIU, vitamin D3 ≥ 150 kIU, vitamin E ≥ 2,000 IU, nicotinic acid ≥500 mg, Cu ≥ 1500 mg, Fe ≥ 1,500 mg, Mn ≥ 1,500 mg, Zn ≥ 7,000 mg, I ≥ 90 mg, Se ≥ 50 mg, Co ≥ 20 mg