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Table 2 List of ETEC F4 and F18 challenge trials relative to the model setting and the infection indicators observed

From: Methodology and application of Escherichia coli F4 and F18 encoding infection models in post-weaning pigs

N a No. of pigs per group Weaning Conditioning ETECb Challenge dose Challenge timingc Control groupd Indicators for challenge effectiveness End of the trial Ref.e
1 64 d28 No F4ac in farm NA Already present at weaning NA Fecal score; post-mortem examinations 28 dpw [43]
2 24 d25 Yes F4ac 10 mL of 8.1 log10 CFU/mL 4 dpw NA Fecal score; counting of haemolitic bacteria; in vitro adhesion test 26 dpi [86]
3 6 d18 No F4ac 1 × 109 CFU/mL 1 dpw Neg. and pos Fecal score; fecal coliforms count 6 dpi [101]
4 8 d28 No F4 + O149 2 × 1010 CFU/mL From 1 to 2 dpw NA Diarrhea, ETEC shedding in feces 11 dpi [100]
5 24 d28 No F4+ O149 6, 8 and 10 mL of 3.44 × 108 CFU/mL From 5 to 7 dpw NA Diarrhea; ETEC fecal shedding 7 dpi [112]
6 8 d28 No F4 3 mL of 3 × 1010 CFU/mL 7 dpw Neg. group Diarrhea; ETEC shedding in feces; Post-mortem examination 7 dpi [104]
7 6 d 25 No F4 % mL of 5 × 108 CFU/mL At weaning NA Diarrhea; ETEC shedding in feces 7 dpi [99]
8 24 d 21 No F4 6, 8 and 10 mL of 2.16 × 108 CFU/mL From 3 to 6 dpw Neg Diarrhea: haemolytic E. coli fecal shedding 11 dpi [103]
9 12 d21 Yes F4ac 2 mL of 5.0 × 109 CFU/mL From 3 to 4 dpw Neg General condition scores of pigs behaviour; diarrhea; RTg; fecal fae and est-II concentrations 7 dpi [45]
10 7 d28 No F4 1.5 mL of 10 × 1010 CFU/mL 14 dpw NA Diarrhea; E. coli in feces; blood Igs 28 dpi [107]
11 10 d24 No F4 1.5 mL of 10 × 10 8 CFU/mL 7 dpw Pos Diarrhea; ETEC shedding in feces; blood total IgA and F4ac-specific IgA 14 dpi [13]
12 5 d21 No F4 1 mL of 1 × 109 CFU/mL 7 dpw Neg and Pos Diarrhea 8 dpi [105]
13 6 d21 No F4 1 mL of 1 × 109 CFU/mL 9 dpw Neg and pos Diarrhea 12 dpi [115]
14 5 d28 No F4 1 × 108 CFU/mL 14 dpw Neg sIgA in bile 2 dpi [108]
15 18 d17 No F4 30 mL of an alkaline broth 1010 CFU/mL 7 dpw Neg Diarrhea 7 dpi [106]
16 3–7 NA Yes F4 NA At weaning Neg Diarrhea; serum Igs 11 dpi [16]
17 5 NA No F4 109 CFU/mL 12 dpw Neg In vitro adhesion test 24 h after infection [102]
18 8 (28 in COf) d21 Yes F4ac 1.5 mL suspension of 1010 CFU/mL 5 dpw Neg Diarrhea; blood specific-F4 IgA; In vitro adhesion test; ETEC plate counts on intestinal content 50% on 4 dpi; 50% on 18 dpi [116]
19 24 d21 No F4 1.5 mL suspension of 1010 CFU/mL 7 dpw NA Diarrhea; fecal E. coli and ETEC count; blood specific-F4 IgA; In vitro adhesion test 7 dpi [140]
20 20 d21 No F4 1.5 mL suspension of 1010 CFU/mL 2 dpw NA Diarrhea; fecal E. coli and ETEC count; blood specific-F4 IgA; In vitro adhesion test 6 dpi [128]
21 12 d21 No F4 1.5 mL suspension of 1010 CFU/mL 4 dpw Pos Diarrhea; ETEC F4 count in feces and intestinal content; blood specific-F4 IgA; In vitro adhesion test 11 dpi [89]
22 12 d21 No F4 1.5 mL suspension of 1010 CFU/mL 1 dpw NA Diarrhea; ETEC F4 count in feces and intestinal content; blood and saliva specific-F4 IgA; in vitro adhesion test 7 dpi [127]
23 9 d17 Yes F4 6 mL of 2 × 2 × 1010 CFU/mL 9 dpw NA Diarrhea; E. coli quantification in colon 7 dpi [110]
24 12 d49 No F4 20 mL NaCl with 108 CFU/mL From 2 to 4 dpw Neg Fecal DM 10 dpi [118]
25 40 d25 No F4 3 × 109 CFU/mL 3 dpw NS Diarrhea; fecal E. coli counts; 5 dpi or 9 dpi [117]
26 12 d20 Yes F18ab 5 mL of 1 × 1010 CFU/mL 21 dpw Neg Diarrhea; fecal haemolitc colony; blood IgA and IgG; 30 dpi [84]
27 18 (28 in COf) d28 No F18ac 1011 CFU/mL At weaning for 3 d NA Diarrhea; ETEC F18 quantification in feces and intestinal content 9 dpi; [114]
  1. aN Study number
  2. bETEC Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
  3. cChallenge timing: it was reported as days post-weaning (dpw)
  4. dControl group: Neg Negative control group (not infected), Pos Positive control group (group treated with antibiotic)
  5. eRef. Reference
  6. fCO Control group
  7. gRT Rectal temperature
  8. Additional abbreviations: D day, CFU Colony forming units, NA Not available, dpi Days post-inoculum