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Table 1 List of ETEC F4 and F18 challenge trials including animal choices for susceptibility, their relative model settings and the observed infection indicators included

From: Methodology and application of Escherichia coli F4 and F18 encoding infection models in post-weaning pigs

N a Genetics variantsb No. of pigs per group Weaning Conditioning ETECc Challenge dose Challenge timingd Control groupe Indicators for challenge effectiveness End of the trial Reff
1 MUC4 −/− +/− and +/+ 8 d28 No F4ac 109 CFU/mL 3 dpw NA NA 7 dpi [67]
2 MUC4 −/− 8 d21 No F4ac 10 mL of ETEC culture 109 CFU/mL 8 dpw Neg Diarrhea; RTi 7 dpi [70]
3 MUC4 −/− 6 d21 No F4ac 10 mL of ETEC culture 109 CFU/mL 8 dpw Neg Diarrhea; RTi 7 dpi [69]
4 MUC4 −/− 8 d21 No F4ac 1 × 1010 CFU/mL 8 dpw Neg Abundance of E.coli in feces 7 dpi [68]
5 MUC4 +/+ 10 d24 No F4ac 5 mL of suspension containing 108 CFU/mL 7 dpw NA Diarrhea; fecal ETEC plate counts; anti-F4 IgA and IgM in blood 14 dpi [12]
6 MUC4 +/+ 5 d24 No F4ac 5 mL of suspension containing 108 CFU/mL 7 dpw NA Diarrhea; In vitro adhesion test 24 h pi [44]
7 MUC4 +/+ 10 or 20 d17–18 Yes F4ac 1.5 × 109 CFU/mL or 1.7 × 109 CFU/mL or 9.8 × 108 CFU/mL 3 or 7 or 21 dpw NA Diarrhea; gut content consistency; ETEC F4 fecal shedding; serum and intestinal anti-F4 IgM, IgA and IgG 3 or 5 dpi [14]
8 MUC4+/+ 8 d42 Yes F4ac 1 × 108 CFU
in 20 mL NaCl
From 1 to 3 dpw Neg Diarroea; fecal ETEC plate counts, IgA and IgM in blood 10 dpw [64]
9 MUC4+/+ 6 d28 Yes F4ac 1 × 108 CFU
in 20 mL NaCl
From 1 to 2 Neg Diarroea; fecal ETEC plate counts 12 dpw [65]
10 van Haeringen laboratory
MUC4+/+.
gExp1 = 3; gExp2 = 6 d28 Yes F4ac 1 × 109 CFU/mL in 5 mL of 9% NaCl + 10 mL of 10% NaHCO3 2 dpw Exp1: Neg; Exp2: NA gExp1 and Exp2: Diarrhea and fecal DM; fecal haemolic E. coli; 19 dpi [91]
11 van Haeringen laboratory
MUC4+/+
8–10 d30–32 Yes F4ac 5 × 107 CFU
in 20 mL NaCl
From 1 to 2 dpw Neg Diarroea; fecal ETEC plate counts 10 dpw [15]
12 MUC13 +/+ gExp1 = 16; gExp2 = 18 d24 No F4ac 5 mL of 108 CFU/ mL 4 dpw Neg gExp1: Diarrhea; Exp2: Diarrhea; fecal ETEC quantification 13 dpi [46]
13 MUC4 +/+; FUT1 +/+ F4 = 20;
F18 = 18
d28 Yes F4 and F18ac F18ac: 1011 CFU/mL; F4 1011 CFU/mL for 2 days 7 dpw Neg Diarrheal; ETEC F18 and F4 fecal shedding; F18 and F4 specific antibodies in blood; in vitro adhesion test 20 dpi [72]
14 Exp1:FUT1 +/+ and MUC4 −/− or MUC4 +/+; Exp2: FUT1 +/+ and MUC4 +/+ gExp1 = 12; gExp2 = 10 d16–18 No gExp1:F18; gExp2:F4 Exp1 = 1 × 1010 CFU/mL or 5 × 1010 CFU/mL; Exp2 = 1.3 × 109 CFU/mL 7 or 21 d post vaccination Neg Diarrhea; ETEC F18 and F4 fecal shedding; Serum anti-F4 and anti-F18 IgM and IgA; Exp1 = 7 dpi; Exp2 = 4 dpi [66]
15 MUC4 +/+ and FUT1 +/+ 6 NA No F18ab 10 mL of 1011 CFU/ mL 62 dpw NA Fecal ETEC F18; serum IgA; in vitro adhesion test 7 dpi [73]
16 FUT1 +/+ 6 gExp1: d25; gExp2: d30 Yes gExp1:
F18ab;
gExp2:F18ac
gExp1: 5 mL of 6.7 log CFU; gExp2: 5 ml of 6.7 log CFU Exp1: 11 dpw; Exp2: 13 dpw + 30 dpw the 2° challenge NA ETEC F18 fecal count; serum F18 IgA 8 dpi [113]
17 FUT1 +/+ gExp1 = 4; gExp2 = 3 d28 Yes F18ab 10 mL of 1011 CFU/ mL at weaning NA Diarrhea; F18-specific antibodies in blood; in vitro adhesion test 8 dpi [47]
18 FUT1 +/+ 9 Not pertinenth No F18 1 mL of 7.5 × 1010 CFU/ mL from days 1–8 of life Neg Diarrhea; E. coli aboundance in intestinal content 8 dpi [75]
19 FUT1 +/+ 10 Not pertinenth No F18 1 mL of 1010 CFU/ mL from days 1–4 of life Neg Diarrhea 5 dpi [76]
20 FUT1 +/+ gExp1 = 6;
gExp2 = 5
gExp1 = d28; gExp2 = d21   F18 10 mL of 1011 CFU/ mL gExp1: 22 dpw; gExp2: 7 dpw Exp1: Neg; Exp2: NA gExp1and Exp 2: Fecal excretion of ETEC F18; F18- and FedF-specific IgM, IgA and IgG response in blood and saliva; in vitro adhesion test Exp1:18 dpi; Exp2:21 dpi [74]
21 FUT1 +/+ 18 d28–34 No F18 50 mL of 3 × 108 CFU/ mL From 3 to 6 dpw NA Diarrhea; E. coli and Hemolytic bacteria count on feces; Fecal DM; plasma IgA and IgG Not reported [17]
  1. aN Study number
  2. bGenetics variants: MUC4:Mucine4; MUC13:Mucine13; FUT1: Fucosyltransferase 1. +/+ stands for the genotypes associated with the susceptibility to the respective ETEC; −/−: the genotypes associated with the resistance
  3. cETEC Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
  4. dChallenge timing: it was reported as days post-weaning (dpw)
  5. eControl group: Neg Negative control group (not infected), Pos Positive control group (group treated with antibiotic)
  6. fRef. Reference
  7. gExp Experiment
  8. hNot pertinent: performed in newborn cesarean-delivered pigs
  9. iRT Rectal temperature
  10. Additional abbreviations: D day, CFU Colony forming units, NA Not available, dpi Days post-inoculum