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Table 1 Most relevant SNPs identified in the MSTN promoter region

From: Myostatin gene promoter: structure, conservation and importance as a target for muscle modulation

Animal group Breeds or species SNP Effect on MSTN promoter/gene Phenotype changes Ref.
Bovine Marchigiana, Chianina, Romagnola, Piedmontese, Holstein Friesian, Italian Red Pied, Brown Swiss, Belgian Blue, Limousine T/A (−371) Introduction of a Pit1 (signal sequence TAAAT) and a WAP–US6 (signal sequence TTTAAA) binding motifs at − 372 and at − 374, respectively Effect on muscularity only when associated with a mutation in the coding region (observed in Marchigiana) [40, 44]
Holstein (Dutch), Hanwoo and Jeju Black (Korean) Effects on meat quality grade index and fat color index of backfat [42]
Marchigiana, Chianina, Romagnola, Piedmontese, Holstein Friesian, Italian Red Pied, Belgian Blue G/C (− 805) Introduction of an LBP-1 binding motif at − 806 (binding motif WCTRG) [40, 44]
Porcine Several commercial breeds G/A (− 847); A/G (− 835) Not significantly associated with MSTN expression levels; possible disruption of a MEF3 binding motif Associated to growth, daily gain and meat quality traits [53]
Yorkshire T/A (− 383) Positive effects on birth weight and growth traits [114]
Large White, Landrace, Meishan, Wild boar, Piétrain, Yorkshire, Duroc A/G (−447); G/A (− 435) Disruption of a MEF3 binding motif (445–454); Differential expression of Mstn gene of muscle; likely to affect the recognition of E-box by MRFs; possible disruption of NFAT binding motif Associated with body weight, higher muscle weight and percentage, decreased backfat thickness [46, 49, 52]
Meishan T/A (−879) Disruption of MSX1/MSX2 binding motif (873–885) [46]
Sheep Ovis aries G/C (− 2449) Connected to higher loin meat yields [61]
T/C (− 2379) Associated with increased birthweight
C/T (− 1129)
C/T (− 959)
A/G (− 784)
Horse Equus caballus T/C (−26) Associated with heavy breeds, possible involvement in morphology traits [64, 65]
T/C (−156) Affects TATA-3 binding motif
Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus T/C (− 125) [115]
T/C (− 476) Associated with increased liver weight and carcass weight; positive effect on growth [116]
Chicken Gallus gallus A/T (− 214) Possible disruption of FAST-1 binding motif Higher body weights [75]
Duck Anas platyrhynchos G/A (− 753) Associated with breast meat percentages [78]
G/C (− 235) Associated with abdominal fat percentages
Fish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) mstn-1b C/T (− 1086) Correlation with harvest weight, gutted weight, beheaded weight and fillet weight [117]
Flatfish spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) mstn-1 T/C (− 355) Correlation with growth traits in female individuals [90]
Invertebrates Noble scallop (Chlamys nobilis) A/C (− 579) Associated with growth traits [118]
Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) A/G (− 779) Associated with dry body weight [97]
T/C (− 437)
  1. A minus symbol (−) indicates unavailable information because it was not identified or tested. SNPs were considered as one when linkage disequilibrium was verified