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Table 8 Carcass muscle amino acid concentrations (without longissimus dorsi) of growing barrows (25 to 42 kg body weight) fed different levels of threonine (70%, 85%, 100%, 115%, and 130% of the ideal threonine:lysine ratio of 0.65) in an individual precision-feeding (IPF) system or a group phase-feeding (GPF) system

From: Pigs receiving daily tailored diets using precision-feeding techniques have different threonine requirements than pigs fed in conventional phase-feeding systems

Parameter IPF GPF   P-value2
70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 MSE1 Thr FS Thr× FS
Number of observations 5 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5     
Chemical composition * , %
 Dry matter 31.10 30.39 29.84 29.59 29.94 29.37 30.22 30.52 29.84 29.73 0.76 0.82 0.55 0.33
 Crude protein 17.40 17.54 17.82 17.78 18.39 18.24 17.93 18.06 17.87 18.18 0.26 0.09 0.05 0.13
 Fat 12.84 12.19 11.46 10.79 11.25 10.88 11.67 10.72 11.05 11.10 1.02 0.64 0.23 0.70
 Ash 0.99 1.00 1.02 1.01 1.00 1.01 0.99 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.02 0.91 0.48 0.86
 Collagen 1.61 1.60 1.60 1.66 1.63 1.56 1.66 1.73 1.61 1.61 0.08 0.76 0.69 0.41
Essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Arginine 7.40 6.63 7.12 7.62 6.99 7.13 7.93 7.63 7.11 7.11 0.29 0.63 0.12 0.01a,b
 Histidine 4.45 3.68 3.94 4.30 4.09 4.27 4.54 4.28 3.88 3.99 0.23 0.48 0.39 0.02a,c
 Isoleucine 4.80 4.39 4.74 4.88 4.48 4.72 5.19 4.99 4.68 4.70 0.19 0.48 0.05 0.03a,b
 Leucine 8.26 7.57 8.10 8.46 7.79 8.12 9.03 8.22 8.10 8.10 0.26 0.61 0.07 0.01a,b
 Lysine 8.74 8.02 8.58 9.05 8.29 8.64 9.51 9.18 8.59 8.63 0.38 0.67 0.06 0.04a,c
 Methionine 2.56 2.19 2.28 2.87 2.73 2.24 2.87 2.36 2.66 2.60 0.26 0.15 0.87 0.19
 Phenylalanine 4.37 3.95 4.23 4.44 4.10 4.29 4.73 4.53 4.23 4.25 0.18 0.66 0.04 0.02a,b
 Threonine 4.56 4.20 4.54 4.76 4.38 4.57 5.09 4.56 4.53 4.51 0.17 0.61 0.07 0.01a,b
 Valine 5.21 4.73 5.09 5.30 4.84 5.12 5.62 5.39 5.09 5.06 0.17 0.44 0.04 0.03a,b
Non-essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Alanine 6.32 5.74 6.12 6.44 5.91 6.22 6.78 6.61 6.19 6.06 0.26 0.43 0.05 0.04a,d
 Asparagine 11.27 10.15 10.92 11.30 10.46 10.98 12.08 11.58 10.85 10.81 0.47 0.54 0.07 0.03a,c
 Cysteine 0.95 0.88 0.93 0.95 0.87 0.96 1.04 1.03 0.91 0.92 0.05 0.33 0.04 0.20
 Glutamate 15.37 13.44 15.39 13.52 13.37 14.96 15.28 15.23 14.10 13.60 1.20 0.21 0.49 0.82
 Glycine 5.97 5.48 5.80 6.14 5.75 5.97 6.32 6.47 5.98 5.74 0.27 0.44 0.06 0.11
 Proline 4.67 4.29 4.56 4.82 4.50 4.66 5.08 5.01 4.65 4.56 0.20 0.55 0.03 0.04a,d
 Serine 4.11 3.74 4.02 4.21 3.92 4.03 4.50 4.31 4.05 3.97 0.18 0.61 0.07 0.03a,b
 Tyrosine 4.00 3.63 3.92 4.04 3.74 3.91 4.35 4.12 3.85 3.89 0.16 0.55 0.06 0.02a,b
  1. 1MSE, maximum standard error; * Fresh basis
  2. 2Thr, level of threonine; FS, feeding system; Thr × FS, interaction between level of threonine and feeding system; linear effect for Thr; acubic effect within IPF; bcubic effect within GPF; ctendency for a cubic effect within GPF; dquadratic effect within GPF