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Table 7 Longissimus dorsi amino acid concentrations of growing barrows (25 to 42 kg body weight) fed different levels of threonine (70%, 85%, 100%, 115%, and 130% of the ideal threonine:lysine ratio of 0.65) in an individual precision-feeding (IPF) system or a group phase-feeding (GPF) system

From: Pigs receiving daily tailored diets using precision-feeding techniques have different threonine requirements than pigs fed in conventional phase-feeding systems

Parameter IPF GPF   P-value2
70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 MSE1 Thr FS Thr × FS
Number of observations 5 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5     
Chemical composition * , %
 Dry matter 24.38 24.49 24.15 24.05 24.51 23.95 23.99 24.55 24.53 24.30 0.43 0.96 0.82 0.47
 Crude protein 20.63 21.07 21.13 20.92 21.59 21.31 21.32 21.07 21.29 20.71 0.41 0.92 0.66 0.03a
 Fat 2.15 2.05 1.97 1.44 1.73 1.70 1.78 1.71 1.79 1.95 0.27 0.66 0.56 0.30
 Ash 1.14 1.19 1.18 1.19 1.18 1.15 1.18 1.17 1.18 1.17 0.04 0.73 0.68 1.00
 Collagen 0.57 0.62 0.60 0.51 0.45 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.54 0.04 0.05 0.64 0.09c
Essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Arginine 7.38 7.51 7.34 7.33 7.19 7.40 7.41 7.34 7.40 7.49 0.12 0.75 0.36 0.36
 Histidine 5.29 4.91 4.81 4.92 4.64 5.23 4.98 4.92 4.84 4.96 0.16 0.01 0.38 0.50
 Isoleucine 5.10 5.22 5.07 5.07 4.98 5.13 5.10 5.08 5.06 5.20 0.07 0.57 0.51 0.08a,d
 Leucine 8.62 8.68 8.63 8.57 8.36 8.68 8.60 8.56 8.55 8.74 0.09 0.60 0.27 0.02a,d
 Lysine 9.39 9.52 9.42 9.39 9.11 9.49 9.43 9.33 9.30 9.47 0.12 0.36 0.53 0.08c
 Methionine 2.66 2.38 2.70 2.87 2.52 2.97 2.45 2.28 2.41 2.51 0.23 0.25 0.40 0.18
 Phenylalanine 4.48 4.48 4.47 4.48 4.34 4.51 4.45 4.43 4.48 4.48 0.06 0.53 0.54 0.33
 Threonine 4.89 4.91 4.92 4.92 4.70 4.92 4.92 4.85 4.86 4.94 0.07 0.42 0.30 0.03c
 Valine 5.37 5.44 5.34 5.32 5.24 5.41 5.34 5.34 5.32 5.47 0.08 0.74 0.39 0.13
Non-essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Alanine 6.03 6.10 6.04 6.05 5.81 6.12 6.04 6.03 6.00 6.08 0.07 0.14 0.18 0.02c
 Asparagine 11.88 11.76 11.66 11.85 11.34 11.81 11.74 11.80 11.78 11.85 0.16 0.35 0.24 0.14
 Cysteine 0.94 0.97 0.95 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.97 0.03 0.50 0.69 0.05a,b
 Glutamate 17.42 17.72 17.73 17.81 16.28 16.98 17.78 17.52 17.45 18.01 0.56 0.55 0.58 0.09c
 Glycine 4.75 4.76 4.70 4.76 4.57 4.79 4.73 4.80 4.75 4.81 0.07 0.68 0.08 0.18
 Proline 4.00 4.02 4.02 4.03 3.90 4.06 4.03 4.05 4.00 4.08 0.06 0.86 0.10 0.20
 Serine 4.19 4.13 4.22 4.21 4.04 4.23 4.18 4.16 4.15 4.17 0.05 0.13 0.48 0.16
 Tyrosine 4.16 4.19 4.16 4.18 4.04 4.20 4.16 4.14 4.16 4.19 0.06 0.65 0.47 0.32
  1. 1MSE, maximum standard error; *Fresh basis
  2. 2Thr, level of threonine; FS, feeding system; Thr × FS, interaction between level of threonine and feeding system; linear effect for Thr; alinear effect within IPF; blinear effect within GPF; cquadratic effect within IPF; dquadratic effect within GPF;