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Table 5 Liver amino acid concentrations of growing barrows (25 to 42 kg body weight) fed different levels of threonine (70%, 85%, 100%, 115%, and 130% of the ideal threonine:lysine ratio of 0.65) in an individual precision-feeding (IPF) system or a group phase-feeding (GPF)

From: Pigs receiving daily tailored diets using precision-feeding techniques have different threonine requirements than pigs fed in conventional phase-feeding systems

Parameter IPF GPF   P-valueb
70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 MSEa Thr FS Thr × FS
Number of observations 5 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5     
Chemical composition c , %
 Dry matter 28.94 27.70 28.35 28.73 28.66 28.08 28.58 28.29 28.69 29.04 0.53 0.59 0.84 0.49
 Crude protein 20.44 20.28 20.35 20.57 20.72 20.34 20.55 20.34 20.77 20.26 0.33 0.84 0.92 0.78
 Fat 7.11 6.21 6.35 6.17 6.44 5.91 6.77 6.69 6.41 7.43 0.51 0.72 0.53 0.19
 Ash 1.48 1.51 1.50 1.51 1.48 1.47 1.47 1.47 1.59 1.47 0.04 0.21 0.93 0.54
Essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Arginine 6.89 7.00 6.87 6.88 6.89 6.69 6.91 7.09 6.85 6.82 0.18 0.76 0.76 0.76
 Histidine 3.01 2.91 2.92 3.03 3.04 3.03 2.92 2.99 2.93 2.88 0.08 0.69 0.49 0.48
 Isoleucine 4.47 4.36 4.36 4.39 4.45 4.28 4.37 4.30 4.44 4.42 0.06 0.40 0.23 0.32
 Leucine 9.00 8.76 8.83 9.01 9.00 8.86 8.82 8.86 8.87 8.82 0.11 0.50 0.23 0.62
 Lysine 7.52 7.34 7.29 7.50 7.32 7.39 7.30 7.25 7.32 7.28 0.12 0.38 0.22 0.95
 Methionine 3.19 3.00 2.80 3.14 3.21 2.79 2.68 2.59 3.16 2.51 0.44 0.82 0.21 0.93
 Phenylalanine 5.00 4.87 4.92 5.03 5.10 4.97 4.92 4.99 4.96 4.93 0.06 0.24 0.33 0.14
 Threonine 4.48 4.40 4.38 4.49 4.44 4.34 4.38 4.38 4.41 4.42 0.05 0.60 0.09 0.65
 Valine 5.83 5.68 5.73 5.80 5.83 5.79 5.72 5.74 5.76 5.71 0.08 0.61 0.49 0.86
Non-essential amino acids, g/100 g of crude protein
 Alanine 5.76 5.64 5.69 5.73 5.71 5.71 5.62 5.68 5.69 5.61 0.06 0.39 0.22 0.94
 Asparagine 10.51 10.18 10.31 10.52 10.40 10.37 10.19 10.20 10.35 10.16 0.17 0.41 0.18 0.95
 Cysteine 1.14 1.24 1.33 1.23 1.19 1.15 1.18 1.24 1.23 1.25 0.06 0.21 0.65 0.69
 Glutamate 12.56 11.80 11.02 11.68 12.03 12.05 11.94 11.05 11.21 11.22 0.63 0.23 0.37 0.91
 Glycine 5.92 5.68 5.87 5.75 5.78 5.75 5.71 5.83 5.84 5.70 0.08 0.21 0.50 0.44
 Proline 4.79 4.64 4.77 4.76 4.76 4.67 4.68 4.73 4.78 4.66 0.05 0.24 0.22 0.40
 Serine 4.53 4.52 4.49 4.57 4.49 4.39 4.44 4.44 4.48 4.43 0.06 0.74 0.02 0.92
 Tyrosine 4.21 4.12 4.11 4.18 4.19 4.06 4.15 4.08 4.15 4.13 0.05 0.47 0.10 0.36
  1. aMSE, maximum standard error; cFresh basis
  2. bThr, level of threonine; FS, feeding system; Thr × FS, interaction between level of threonine and feeding system