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Table 2 Initial and final animal body composition, growth performance, and nutrient efficiency of growing barrows (25 to 42 kg body weight) fed different levels of threonine (70%, 85%, 100%, 115%, and 130% of the ideal threonine:lysine ratio of 0.65) in an individual precision-feeding (IPF) system or a group phase-feeding (GPF) system

From: Pigs receiving daily tailored diets using precision-feeding techniques have different threonine requirements than pigs fed in conventional phase-feeding systems

Parameter IPF GPF P-value2
70 85 100 115 130 70 85 100 115 130 MSE1 Thr FS Thr× FS
Number of observations 10 8 11 10 10 11 10 11 11 11     
Initial conditions
 Body weight, kg 26.0 26.2 25.6 25.2 26.0 26.7 25.7 25.8 25.7 26.2 0.8 0.40 0.49 0.84
 Body protein, kg 3.94 3.96 3.83 3.76 3.93 4.06 4.00 3.91 3.87 3.97 0.17 0.23 0.18 0.99
 Body lipids, kg 1.18 1.19 1.16 1.14 1.17 1.21 1.20 1.17 1.16 1.19 0.03 0.16 0.23 1.00
Final conditions, growth performance, and nutrient efficiency
 Body weight, kg 39.54 40.45 41.47 41.59 43.45 40.80 42.48 42.06 41.74 42.28 1.09 0.11 0.37 0.57
 Body protein, kg 6.59 6.68 6.83 6.94 7.28 6.86 6.95 7.04 6.98 7.12 0.23 0.16 0.31 0.76
 Body lipids, kg 2.76 2.75 2.71 2.56 2.61 2.76 2.89 2.73 2.61 2.59 0.23 0.64 0.72 0.99
 Average daily feed intake, kg/d 1.44 1.46 1.46 1.63 1.50 1.51 1.40 1.49 1.48 1.41 0.14 0.41 0.35 0.47
 Average daily gain, kg/d 0.64 0.67 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.68 0.73 0.78 0.77 0.76 0.04 0.01 0.63 0.17
 G:F,3kg/kg 0.46 0.47 0.51 0.51 0.56 0.45 0.49 0.52 0.52 0.56 0.04 < 0.001 0.64 0.87
 SID4lysine intake, g/d 11.5 12.3 12.2 13.3 12.9 13.0 12.0 12.8 12.7 12.1 1.3 0.63 0.86 0.22
 SID threonine intake, g/d 6.3 7.9 8.9 11.0 11.5 7.1 7.6 9.3 10.2 11.4 0.9 < 0.001 0.99 0.33
 Threonine efficiency,5% 84 68 65 56 54 75 68 65 57 55 0.07 < 0.001 0.53 0.46
 Lysine efficiency,6% 80 78 87 85 93 73 78 88 88 94 0.09 < 0.001 0.83 0.77
 Protein deposition, g/d 126.2 129.7 141.4 151.1 159.5 130.9 143.1 149.7 148.5 150.2 8.3 < 0.001 0.54 0.59
 Protein in gain, % 19.0 19.1 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.0 19.2 19.4 19.4 19.6 0.3 0.43 0.25 0.99
 Lipid deposition, g/d 74.8 74.1 74.7 68.3 68.4 74.2 81.0 74.4 69.0 66.8 10.1 0.70 0.84 0.99
Nitrogen balance
 Crude protein intake, g/d 222.3 238.4 236.2 258.2 248.6 250.2 230.1 247.0 244.6 234.0 19.48 0.56 0.95 0.22
 Efficiency of nitrogen retention, % 55.34 54.68 60.53 59.07 64.51 51.25 54.66 61.25 61.08 65.25 4.77 < 0.001 0.94 0.80
 Nitrogen excretion, g/d 16.34 17.39 14.90 16.17 14.26 18.55 16.60 15.58 15.40 13.41 2.96 0.05 0.91 0.70
  1. 1MSE, maximum standard error
  2. 2Thr, level of threonine; FS, feeding system; L × Thr, interaction between level of threonine and feeding system; linear effect for Thr; tendency for a linear effect for Thr
  3. 3G:F, gain:feed ratio
  4. 4SID, standardized ileal digestible
  5. 5Threonine (Thr) efficiency = {(PD × 0.037) − [0.313 g Thr/kg dry matter × DFI + (0.0033 g Thr/kg0.75 d × BW0.75) + (0.0138 g Thr/kg0.75 d × BW0.75)]}/SID Thr intake, where PD is protein deposition, DFI is daily feed intake, and BW is body weight
  6. 6Lysine (Lys) efficiency = {(PD × 0.069) − [0.330 g Lys/kg dry matter × DFI + (0.0045 g Lys/kg0.75 d × BW0.75) + (0.0239 g Lys/kg0.75 d × BW0.75)]}/SID Lys intake, where PD is protein deposition, DFI is daily feed intake, and BW is body weight