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Table 1 Ingredients, proximate composition and net energy of the BSF larva meal and experimental diets

From: Partially defatted black soldier fly larva meal inclusion in piglet diets: effects on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, gut morphology and histological features

Items  BSF larva meal Phase I (1–23 d) Phase II (24–61 d)
BSF0 BSF5 BSF10 BSF0 BSF5 BSF10
Ingredients, g/kg as fed
 Corn meal 317.9 332.7 347.3 378.0 392.9 407.4
 Barley meal 220.0 220.0 220.0 220.0 220.0 220.0
 Soybean meal 200.0 140.0 80.0 185.0 125.0 65.0
 Dried wheya 140.0 140.0 140.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 Wheat meal 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0
 Soybean oil 25.0 21.0 17.0 20.0 16.0 12.0
 BSF mealb 0.0 50.0 100.0 0.0 50.0 100.0
 Calcium carbonate 6.0 7.5 8.0 7.0 8.5 10.0
L-lysine 6.5 7.1 7.6 5.5 6.0 6.6
 Titanium oxide 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
 Premix pigletsc 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
 Dicalcium phosphate 5.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 3.0 0.0
DL-methionine 3.0 3.0 3.2 2.4 2.4 2.6
 Salt 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
L-threonine 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.0 2.1 2.3
L-tryptophan 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
 Pig aroma 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
Proximate composition, g/kg as fedd
 DM 947.4 899.8 903.1 906.4 894.0 897.3 900.7
 Ash 76.7 47.2 46.4 45.5 46.1 45.3 44.6
 CP 559.0 178.8 178.9 179.0 170.4 170.4 170.6
 EE 85.0 73.5 73.4 73.3 61.9 61.8 61.7
 Starch 346.8 354.3 361.7 384.2 391.8 399.1
 NDF 192.3 109.8 115.2 120.7 114.2 119.6 125.1
 ADF 87.0 40.5 42.1 43.6 41.4 43.0 44.5
 Chitin 53.4
 NE, MJ/kg 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.3
 Calcium 8.2 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
 Phosphorus 13.1 5.1 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.9 4.7
 Magnesium 4.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.8
 Sodium 1.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.9
 Potassium 18.7 10.1 9.6 9.1 9.2 8.7 8.2
 Chlorine 4.3 5.2 5.5 5.8 4.5 4.8 5.1
 Manganese, mg/kg 203.0 66.8 75.2 83.5 66.8 75.1 83.5
 Zinc, mg/kg 172.0 128.6 134.1 139.7 129.2 134.6 140.1
 Iron, mg/kg 154.0 184.7 178.4 174.1 186.6 180.3 174.0
Essential amino acids, g/kg as fedd
 Methionine 7.3 5.5 5.5 5.7 4.9 4.8 5.0
 Methione + Cysteine 12.0 8.4 8.2 8.3 7.7 7.5 7.5
 Lysine 26.6 14.0 14.0 13.9 12.6 12.5 12.5
 Threonine 20.1 9.0 9.0 9.1 8.2 8.2 8.2
 Arginine 25.6 10.3 9.4 8.6 9.9 9.0 8.2
 Valine 21.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 7.6 7.8 7.9
 Tryptophan 34.8 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7
 Isoleucine 30.2 7.1 6.8 6.6 6.7 6.5 6.2
 Leucine 14.4 13.7 13.2 12.7 13.3 12.8 12.4
 Histidine 31.3 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0
 Phenylalanine 7.3 8.2 8.2 8.3 7.9 7.9 8.0
  1. BSF black soldier fly; DM dry matter; CP crude protein; EE ether extract; NDF neutral detergent fiber; ADF acid detergent fiber; NE net energy; BSF0 = control diet; BSF5 = 5% inclusion level of black soldier fly meal; BSF10 = 10% inclusion level of black soldier fly meal
  2. aAdded with 20% of coconut oil
  3. bBlack soldier fly larva meal purchased from Hermetia Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG (Baruth / Mark, Germany)
  4. cPremix: 16,000 IU vitamin A; 2,000 IU vitamin D3; 75.0 mg vitamin E; 2.94 mg vitamin K3; 3.0 mg vitamin B1; 6.0 mg vitamin B2; 4.0 mg vitamin B6; 0.05 mg vitamin B12; 98 mg vitamin C; 21.0 mg pantothenic acid; 40.0 mg vitamin PP; 1.20 mg folic acid; 0.25 mg biotin; 1,500 IU 6-phytase; 700 IU xylanase; 312.5 IU glucanase; 145.68 mg copper; 0.05 mg cobalt; 0.44 mg selenium
  5. dValues are reported as mean of duplicate analyses