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Table 4 Effect of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw (UN) and combination of UN and corn oil supplementation (UNCO) on dissolved gases and fermentation end products in the rumen of goats

From: Effects of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw and corn oil supplementation on fiber digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen fermentation, microbiota and methane emissions in goats

Items Treatment Time after morning feeding SEM P - value
Control UN UNCO 0 h 2.5 h 6 h Treatment Time Treatment × Time
pH 6.34b 6.47a 6.33b 6.51a 6.30b 6.34b 0.072 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.42
NH4+, mmol/L 8.26b 10.8a 11.2a 10.9 10.8 8.6 1.31 0.02 0.06 0.58
Dissolved gases
 Dissolved hydrogen, μmol/L 0.57a 0.44b 0.46b 0.30c 0.71a 0.46b 0.038 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.61
 Dissolved methane, mmol/L 1.31a 1.23a 0.99b 1.55a 1.01b 0.96b 0.067 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.18
Total VFA, mmol/L 82.3 82.1 77.5 77.4b 85.6a 79.0ab 3.73 0.15 < 0.001 0.99
Molar proportion of individual VFA, mol/100 mol
 Acetate 70.1 70.5 69.2 69.7 70.4 69.7 0.89 0.19 0.57 0.97
 Propionate 19.3 20.6 19.9 19.4 20.1 20.4 0.92 0.12 0.21 0.99
 Butyrate 7.52a 6.15b 8.10a 7.50 6.91 7.36 0.472 < 0.001 0.28 0.72
 Iso-butyrate 1.05a 0.90b 0.91b 1.16a 0.85b 0.84b 0.058 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.77
 Valerate 0.65a 0.57b 0.65a 0.62ab 0.67a 0.59b 0.029 0.02 0.03 0.85
 Iso-valerate 1.40 1.21 1.31 1.66a 1.13b 1.14b 0.102 0.09 < 0.001 0.96
 Acetate/Propionate ratio 3.83 3.50 3.66 3.73 3.67 3.59 0.20 0.06 0.58 0.99
(Acetate + butyrate)/Propionate ratio 4.23a 3.82b 4.09ab 4.13 4.03 3.97 0.141 0.01 0.52 0.99
  1. a-cMeans with different superscripts within a row and heading are significantly different (P ≤ 0.05)