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Table 3 Additional movement characteristics of double nanoselected boar spermatozoa

From: Nanotechnology-based approach for safer enrichment of semen with best spermatozoa

  ALH, μm BCF, Hz STR, % LIN, %
Control 7.95 ± 0.08a 38.14 ± 0.3ab 55.7 ± 0.6a 27.3 ± 0.4a
1-step removal1 8.06 ± 0.05a 37.6 ± 0.3b 55.8 ± 0.6a 27.3 ± 0.4a
2-step removal2 7.5 ± 0.1b 38.7 ± 0.3a 60.4 ± 0.8b 29.8 ± 0.7b
  1. 1Removal of apoptotic spermatozoa (annexin V-MNP conjugates = 1-step) was followed by those with 2acrosome reacted (lectin-MNP conjugates = 2-step). This consecutive removal process corresponds to the proposed double nanoselection with evaluation of the lateral head amplitude (ALH), beat cross frequency (BCF), straightness (VSL/VAP × 100), and linearity (VSL/VCL × 100). Data are mean (±sem) of 4 independent replicates; different superscripts (a,b) within the same column indicate significant differences (P<0.05)