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Table 1 Comparisons of major elements among different breeding systems

From: Revolutionize livestock breeding in the future: an animal embryo-stem cell breeding system in a dish

Major breeding elements Conventional breeding Genomic selection Embryo-stem cell breeding
Breeding scheme Yes Yes Yes
Pedigree record Yes Yes, can also reconstruct pedigree from genotyping data Yes, can also reconstruct pedigree from genotyping data
Performance testing Breeding animals Only for reference population Only for reference population
Reference population No Yes Yes
Candidate breeding animal Individual Individual, embryo Embryo
Generation transfer Individual to individual Individual to individual Embryo to embryo
Breeding value EBV GEBV eGEBV
Gametogenesis In vivo gametogenesis In vivo gametogenesis In vitro induced gametogenesis
Fertilization /Embryo In vivo fertilization and development; In vitro fertilization and culture In vivo fertilization and development; In vitro fertilization and culture In vitro fertilization and culture