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Fig. 3 | Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Fig. 3

From: Recent progress of porcine milk components and mammary gland function

Fig. 3

Milk protein synthesis pathway in porcine mammary gland. Note: Amino acids from blood are taken up by the porcine mammary gland through cationic amino acid transporters (CAT-1 and CAT-2B), neutral amino acid transporters (ASCT1, LAT2 and SNAT2), cationic and neutral amino acid transporters (b0,+AT, ATB0,+,y+LAT1, y+LAT2), and anionic amino acid transporters (EAAC1 and EAAC3). Amino acid uptake by the porcine mammary gland can be divided into three levels: high level (leucine, arginine and lysine), middle level (valine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine), and low level (tyrosine, methionine and histidine). Subsequently, amino acids are converted into caseins and whey proteins, such as, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), αS2-casein (CSN1S2), β-casein (CSN2), κ-casein (CSN3), α-lactalbumin (LALBA), whey acidic protein (WAP), LTF (lactotransferrin), ALB (albumin). Abbreviations: CAT1, cationic amino acid transporter1; CAT-2B, cationic amino acid transporter 2B; ASCT1, system ASC neutral amino acid transporter 1; LAT2, L-type amino acid transporter 2; SNAT2, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2; b0,+AT, b0,+ amino acid transporter; ATB0,+, B0,+amino acid transporter; y+LAT1, y+-type amino acid transporter 1; y+LAT2, y+-type amino acid transporter 2; EAAC1, excitatory amino-acid carrier 1; EAAC3, excitatory amino-acid carrier 3

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