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Table 4 Summary of research on the net energy content of ingredients conducted in the past decade (MJ/kg DM)

From: Methodologies on estimating the energy requirements for maintenance and determining the net energy contents of feed ingredients in swine: a review of recent work

Authors

Ingredients

Pigs

NE

NE/ME

Methods

Hinson et al. (2009) [53]

Soybean meal

Growing

7.66

Comparative slaughter

Finishing

10.08

Low-oligosaccharide soybean meal

Growing

9.14

Finishing

11.73

Glycerol

Growing

13.44

Finishing

16.98

Kil et al. (2011) [34]

Soybean oil

Growing

20.19

Comparative slaughter

Finishing

19.33

Choice white grease

Growing

25.05

Finishing

24.99

Kil et al. (2013) [35]

Corn

Growing

9.06

Comparative slaughter

Finishing

11.08

Stewart et al. (2013) [54]

Soybean hulls

Growing

1.67

Comparative slaughter

Finishing

4.01

Wheat middlings

Growing

4.46

Finishing

4.72

Heo et al. (2014) [55]

Canola meal (Brassica napus)

Growing

8.80

69.8

Indirect calorimetry

Canola meal (Brassica juncea)

9.80

72.6

Graham et al. (2014) [39]

Corn DDGS-high oil (12.1% oil)a

Finishing

12.99

81.7

Estimating NE efficiency from a growth study

Corn DDGS-high oil (9.6% oil)

11.85

74.7

Corn DDGS-high oil (9.4% oil)

11.60

71.0

Corn DDGS-medium oil (7.6% oil)

10.61

75.3

Corn DDGS-low oil (5.4% oil)

9.61

66.0

Gutierrez et al. (2014) [36]

Corn DDGS-BPXb

Growing

8.78

Comparative slaughter

Finishing

8.46

Corn DDGS (13.0% oil)

Growing

9.10

Finishing

11.57

High protein DDG

Growing

9.68

Finishing

9.17

Liu et al. (2014 and 2015) [9, 10] (MAFIC work)

Corn

Growing

13.21

81.0

Indirect calorimetry

Soybean meal

10.62

64.3

Wheat bran

7.78

71.6

Wheat

11.44

74.6

Corn DDGS-high oil (10.6% oil)

10.21

66.5

Canola meal

8.38

72.0

Cottonseed meal

7.32

72.9

Li et al. (2017) [11] (MAFIC work)

Corn DDGS-high oil (11.2% oil)

Growing

10.47

70.0

Indirect calorimetry

Corn DDGS-high oil (10.7% oil)

10.98

77.0

Corn DDGS-medium oil (7.6% oil)

10.96

70.8

Corn DDGS-low oil (4.7% oil)

9.49

67.7

Corn DDGS-low oil (3.6% oil)

9.28

69.0

Velayudhan et al. (2015) [42]

Dry extruded expelled SBM

Growing

10.64

75.7

Indirect calorimetry

Li et al. (2018) [14](MAFIC work)

Rice bran

Growing

12.33

77.9

Indirect calorimetry

Corn germ meal

8.75

72.4

Corn gluten feed

7.51

78.5

Peanut meal

10.75

75.3

Sunflower meal

6.49

67.2

Li et al. (2017) [13](MAFIC work)

Rapeseed meal-expeller press

Growing

10.14

72.2

Indirect calorimetry

Rapeseed meal-expeller press

11.46

80.1

Rapeseed meal-solvent extracted

7.98

65.3

Rapeseed meal-solvent extracted

9.47

75.1

Rapeseed meal-solvent extracted

7.91

72.7

Li et al. (2017) [12] (MAFIC work)

Corn

Growing

12.46

78.3

Indirect calorimetry

Soybean meal

11.34

70.2

Rapeseed meal-expeller press

11.71

74.7

Rapeseed meal-solvent extracted

8.83

76.5

  1. aOil content as-fed basis;
  2. bCorn DDGS-BPX, uncooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles