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Table 1 Effects of gas stunning methods on meat color in broilers

From: Gas stunning with CO2 affected meat color, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases, glutathione S-transferases, and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in the skeletal muscles of broilers

Color2 Storage time Stunning methods1 P-value
Control G40% G79%  
Breast meat
L* d 1 53.0 ± 0.81 a 55.7 ± 0.79 b 56.0 ± 0.77 b 0.03
  d 9 52.7 ± 0.61 a 56.0 ± 1.38 b 58.2 ± 0.51 b <  0.01
a* d 1 7.03 ± 0.41 b 5.20 ± 0.72 ab 4.48 ± 0.91 a 0.06
b* d 6 14.0 ± 0.46 b 12.5 ± 0.76ab 11.6 ± 0.82 a 0.08
E* d 1 44.8 ± 0.68 c 43.4 ± 1.05 ab 41.7 ± 0.58 a 0.05
  d 3 47.11 ± 0.41b 44.8 ± 0.68 a 44.3 ± 0.48 a <  0.01
  d 6 43.1 ± 1.05 b 40.9 ± 1.02 ab 39.0 ± 0.90 a 0.04
  d 9 44.6 ± 0.53 b 41.9 ± 1.00 b 40.7 ± 1.05 a 0.02
Thigh meat
a* d 6 7.12 ± 0.58 b 7.79 ± 0.92 b 4.16 ± 0.20 a <  0.01
b* d 1 12.9 ± 0.63 a 15.8 ± 0.97 b 10.7 ± 0.55 a <  0.01
  d 3 15.5 ± 0.38 b 11.5 ± 1.46 a 11.2 ± 0.89 a 0.01
  d 6 13.7 ± 1.78 b 6.00 ± 0.59 a 7.73 ± 0.77a < 0.01
  d 9 8.66 ± 2.20 a 15.2 ± 2.06 b 12.7 ± 1.21 ab 0.08
E* d 6 45.0 ± 1.02 b 40.7 ± 1.19 a 40.1 ± 0.89 a < 0.01
  1. 1Control = without stunning; G40% = 40% CO2 + 21% O2 + 39%N2; G79% = 79% CO2 + 21% O2
  2. 2L* = lightness; a* = redness; b* = yellowness; E* = total chromatic aberration. Color was measured for meat that was stored at 4 °C for 0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 d post-mortem. However, data with P > 0.1 were omitted in the table
  3. a–c Means with no common superscripts within a row differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05) or exhibit differences that approach significance (0.05 < P < 0.10); n = 6; values are expressed as the means ± S.E.M