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Table 2 Final body weight, ruminal pH, concentrations of ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) in ruminal fluid and level of IGF-1 in blood of hay-fed (CON) and high-grain-fed sheep (G7–28)

From: Morphological adaptation of sheep’s rumen epithelium to high-grain diet entails alteration in the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis

Item Treatment SEM Contrast, P
CON G7 G14 G28 Treatment Linear Quadratic Cubic
Final body weight, kg 25.73b 26.24ab 28.40ab 29.23a 0.51 0.024 0.003 0.845 0.47
Rumen parameters
 Ruminal pH 6.81a 5.99b 5.94b 5.84b 0.09 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.106
 Acetate, mmol/L 66.26 69.33 70.36 74.53 1.74 0.436 0.117 0.877 0.744
 Propionate, mmol/L 18.45 19.33 19.88 23.85 1.08 0.315 0.095 0.474 0.695
 Isobutyrate, mmol/L 0.61 0.81 0.68 0.78 0.04 0.363 0.343 0.563 0.165
 Butyrate, mmol/L 5.74b 16.03a 20.17a 18.78a 1.41 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.906
 Isovalerate, mmol/L 0.53 0.87 0.64 0.87 0.07 0.198 0.185 0.664 0.096
 Valerate, mmol/L 0.67b 1.36a 1.29a 1.32a 0.09 0.008 0.008 0.029 0.188
 Total VFA, mnol/L 92.26b 107.73ab 113.02a 120.13a 3.24 0.006 0.001 0.402 0.588
Blood parameter
 IGF-1 in plasma, ng/mL 195.88b 255.74ab 329.70a 293.35a 15.15 0.004 0.002 0.043 0.221
  1. Sheep assigned to CON (n = 5), G7 (n = 5), G14 (n = 5) and G28 (n = 5) received a high-grain diet for 0, 7, 14 and 28 d, respectively
  2. SEM standard error of mean
  3. a, bMeans within a row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05)