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Table 4 Effects of sow breed and season on the identified colostrum metabolites

From: Metabolomics characterization of colostrum in three sow breeds and its influences on piglets’ survival and litter growth rates

Metabolite Breeda SEM P-value Seasonb SEM P-value
D L LW 1 2 3 4
Lactate 5.38 6.7 8.88 1.85 0.506 4.93 10.18 8.71 4.13 1.81 0.495
Alanine 1.77 2.2 2.44 0.17 0.04 1.65 2.5 2.51 1.88 0.17 0.04
Acetate 9.57 11.17 9.9 0.91 0.378 13.59 7.55 5.95 13.77 0.89 <.0001
N-Acetylglutamate 6.35 9.9 14.03 3.77 0.453 7.94 9.69 8.53 14.21 3.69 0.776
N-Acetylglucosamine 10.9 15.4 11.7 1.6 0.003 10.6 14 13.8 12.3 1.6 0.149
UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine 22.4 34.4 33.9 2.2 0.014 26.2 33.4 33.8 27.4 2.1 0.324
O-Acetylcholine 77.1 196.9 156.6 13.9 0.002 101.7 148.4 171.7 152.3 13.6 0.115
Succinate 2.21 3.26 3.5 0.19 0.01 2.59 3.26 3.55 2.55 0.21 0.329
Citrate 209 301 257 13 0.002 246 286 265 228 12 0.101
Dimethylamine 2.86 4.44 4.51 0.49 0.091 2.3 5.19 5.39 2.85 0.48 0.0003
Creatine 39.8 59.9 58.7 3.4 0.014 40.9 59 64.7 46.6 3.3 0.002
Creatine Phosphate 3.4 7.99 8.01 0.88 0.015 1.9 8.5 10.78 4.69 0.86 <.0001
Creatinine 13.6 16.7 16.5 1.1 0.622 19.9 11.8 11.6 19.2 1.1 <.0001
cis-Aconitate 1.41 1.93 1.74 0.14 0.029 1.1 2.14 2.28 1.26 0.14 <.0001
Choline 7.82 10.62 9.91 1.19 0.665 8.86 11.64 9.43 7.87 1.16 0.961
sn-Glycerophosphocholine 446 543 414 38 0.038 430 457 507 477 37 0.507
Myo-inositol 63.53 76.95 82.86 3.76 0.012 62.58 73.17 81.13 80.91 3.68 0.085
Taurine 1.57 4.1 6.05 0.87 0.015 0.98 6.23 6.19 2.21 0.85 0.005
Lactose 458 579 811 30 <.0001 535 644 667 619 30 0.136
UDP-glucose 6.07 9.78 6.23 0.54 <.0001 6.08 7.3 8.09 7.97 0.54 0.198
Glycolate 28.1 39.8 45.8 2.4 0.0006 28.4 41.8 45.9 35.6 2.3 0.001
UDP-galactose 32.6 74 42.5 4 <.0001 39.3 54.2 61.4 44 3.9 0.005
Uridine 3.14 3.72 3.23 0.38 0.601 3.05 3.55 3.49 3.37 0.38 0.463
Formate 4.49 4.43 4.03 0.35 0.06 6.27 3.04 2.29 5.67 0.34 <.0001
UMP 13.3 24.2 21.6 1.7 0.096 21.82 16.04 16.84 24.08 1.91 0.01
  1. Mean of the identified metabolites are expressed as absolute area
  2. aThe Breed is assigned as D for Duroc, L for Landrace and LW for Large White
  3. bThe seasons were assigned as follows: 1 = if the parturition was included in the period between the 1st of December and the 28th of February; 2 = between the 1st of March and the 31st of May; 3 = between the 1st of June and the 31st of August; 4 = between the 1st of September and the 30th of November