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Table 3 Abnormal sperm morphology in young (n = 9) and adult (n = 9) bulls

From: Pulse wave Doppler ultrasound of testicular arteries and their relationship with semen characteristics in healthy bulls

  Young bulls Adult bulls
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Major abnormalities, % 6.1 ± 2.31 10.1 ± 5.42
 Immature sperm, % 0.4 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.7
 Double forms, % 0.2 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2
 Acrosome defects (knobbed acrosome), % 0.5 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.3
 Decapitated head, % 1.2 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.8
 Teratoid heads, % 0.7 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.6
 Diadem defects, % 0.1 ± 0.07 0.1 ± 0.1
 Pear-shaped defects, % 0.2 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.2
 Macrocephalic head, % 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.06
 Microcephalic head, % 0.8 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.5
 Corkscrew defects, % 0.1 ± 0.14 0.2 ± 0.16
 Tail stumps, % 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.2
 Strongly coiled tails, “Dag” defect, % 0.9 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 1.3
 Proximal droplets, % 0.7 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3
Minor abnormalities, % 2.3 ± 0.81 4.2 ± 1.28
 Bent or kinked midpiece, % 0.3 ± 0.14 0.4 ± 0.16
 Distal droplet, % 0.9 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3
 Bent tail, % 0.6 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.4
 Coiled tail, % 0.4 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1
 Other abnormal cells, % 0.1 ± 0.07 0.5 ± 0.32