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Table 2 Variance componentsa using a multi-trait model and a single-trait model

From: Variance components and correlations of female fertility traits in Chinese Holstein population

Parameterb IFL CR AIS NRR56 ICF DO
\( {\sigma}_{a_0}^2 \) 56.6 1.851 E-03 0.018 1.352 E-03   
\( {\sigma}_{a_1}^2 \) 325.8 2.921 E-03 0.101 1.120 E-03 120.5 539.7
\( {\sigma}_{a_2}^2 \) 282.3 1.937 E-03 0.100 1.292 E-03 69.1 380.0
\( {\sigma}_{a_3}^2 \) 238.0 2.821 E-03 0.101 2.697 E-03 59.5 396.6
\( {\sigma}_{e_0}^2 \) 4326.4 0.178 1.392 0.162   
\( {\sigma}_{e_1}^2 \) 9398.3 0.204 3.390 0.210 1059.5 10,520.4
\( {\sigma}_{e_2}^2 \) 9073.3 0.187 3.642 0.217 818.8 9862.0
\( {\sigma}_{e_3}^2 \) 8944.9 0.189 3.642 0.221 798.6 9660.6
\( {\widehat{h}}_0^2 \) 0.013(0.003) 0.010(0.002) 0.013(0.002) 0.008(0.002)   
\( {\widehat{h}}_1^2 \) 0.034(0.005) 0.014(0.003) 0.029(0.005) 0.005(0.002) 0.102(0.008) 0.049(0.006)
\( {\widehat{h}}_2^2 \) 0.030(0.005) 0.010(0.003) 0.027(0.005) 0.006(0.003) 0.078(0.009) 0.037(0.006)
\( {\widehat{h}}_3^2 \) 0.026(0.006) 0.015(0.005) 0.027(0.006) 0.012(0.005) 0.069(0.011) 0.039(0.007)
\( {\sigma}_{a_{123}}^2 \) 257.8 2.314 E-03 0.095 1.215 E-03 86.5 433.8
\( {\sigma}_{pe_{123}}^2 \) 804.5 5.285 E-03 0.317 5.664 E-03 41.3 1173.8
\( {\sigma}_{e_{123}}^2 \) 8438.8 0.191 3.214 0.210 911.3 9034.1
\( {\widehat{h}}^2 \) 123 0.027(0.004) 0.012(0.002) 0.026(0.003) 0.006(0.001) 0.083(0.006) 0.041(0.005)
  1. a \( {\sigma}_{a_i}^2\left( i=0,1,2,3\right) \) = additive genetic variance of ith parity using multi-trait models (model 1); \( {\sigma}_{e_i}^2\left( i=0,1,2,3\right) \) = residual variance of ith parity using multi-trait models (model 1); \( {\widehat{h}}_i^2 \) = estimated heritability of ith parity using multi-trait models (model 1); \( {\sigma}_{a_{123}}^2 \) = additive genetic variance of a cow trait over parities using single-trait models (model 4); \( {\sigma}_{pe123}^2 \) = permanent environmental variance of a cow trait over parities using single-trait models; \( {\sigma}_{e_{123}}^2 \) = residual variance of a cow trait over parities using single-trait models (model 4); \( {\widehat{h}}_{123}^2 \) = estimated heritability of acow trait over parities using single-trait models
  2. b IFL interval from first to last insemination, CR conception rate at first insemination, AIS number of inseminations per conception, NRR56 non-return rate at 56 days after first insemination, ICF interval from calving to first insemination, DO days open