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Table 3 Effect of selected agricultural byproducts containing saponins and other phenolics on dry matter (DM) digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and microbial abundance

From: Use of Asian selected agricultural byproducts to modulate rumen microbes and fermentation

Byproduct Main compounds involved Tested by Dosed at DM digestibility, % Total VFA, mmol/dL Inhibition, % Abundance, relative % Reference
   Methane Ammonia Protozoa Meth Fungi Fs Rf Ra
Tea seed/seed meal Saponins Batch culture 0.4 mg/mL - ns 8.0 - 51.3 ns ns - [38]
Feeding (sheep) 3 g/da - ns 10.6 13.2 43.2 ns ns ns ns [36]
Feeding (steer) 0.24–0.38% of DMI - ns 15.6 - ns ns - [37]
Feeding (growing lamb) 0.41% of DMI - 27.5 ns 41.1 ns ns - ns ns [35]
Thai bllueberry seed Saponins Feeding (goat) 0.8–24% of DMI ns ns 2.2–8.0 ns ns - - - - - [46]
Fenugreek seed Saponins Batch culture 0.14–0.29 mg/mL - ns 1.8–2.0 - 15.0–39.0 - [41]
Mangosteen peel Saponins, tannins Feeding (dairy cow) 100–300 g/da - - 5.5–13.8 - 20.5–47.1 ns ns ns ns [47]
Eucarypus leaf meal Cineol, cryptone etc. Feeding (swamp buffalo) 0.7–2.0% of DMI ns 8.4–13.9 12.7–33.9 5.5–22.0 - - - - - {51}
  1. Meth methanogen, Fs Fibrobacter succinogenes, Rf Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ra Ruminococcus albus
  2. -, No data available
  3. ns, Not significantly changed
  4. ↑, Significantly increased
  5. ↓, Significantly decreased
  6. aDosage could not be expressed as % of dry matter intake (DMI) due to lack of data on feed intake