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Table 4 Proportion (%) of the secondary structures of rapeseed meals toasted for different timesa

From: Physical and chemical changes of rapeseed meal proteins during toasting and their effects on in vitro digestibility

Toasting time Intermolecular β-sheets Intramolecular β-sheets α-helix T2 A2 α-helix : β-sheet
(1,627 – 1,630/cm)b (1,634 – 1,635/cm) (1,655 – 1,656/cm) (1,674/cm) (1,692/cm)  
0 min 49.0 5.5 30.5 8.9 6.1 0.62
20 min 63.1 nd 16.2 13.7 6.9 0.26
40 min 60.8 nd 17.5 14.4 7.2 0.29
60 min 60.0 nd 18.0 14.6 7.4 0.30
80 min 59.4 nd 18.0 15.0 7.5 0.30
100 min 57.5 nd 20.4 14.6 7.5 0.36
120 min 57.9 nd 19.7 14.7 7.7 0.34
SEM 1.0 - 1.1 0.5 0.1 0.03
P-value
 Linear 0.94 - 0.63 0.04 <0.001 0.56
 Quadratic 0.06 - 0.04 0.01 0.004 0.03
  1. a T2 turns, A2 intermolecular hydrogen-bonded β-sheets, nd not detected, SEM standard error of the mean
  2. bRegions of the Fourier transform infrared spectra