Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Identities and relative abundance (mean average of three replicates) of the compounds released upon pyrolysis GC/MS of autoclaved wheat straw before and after treatment with L. edodes for 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk

From: Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

Label Compound Origina Time, wk
0 2 4 8 12
1 (2H)-furan-3-one C 3.4 4.1 4.4 4.9 5.2
2 Propanal C 6.1 5.4 4.4 4.7 6.7
3 Furfural C 6.0 10.1 10.4 11.2 9.7
4 2,3-dihydro-5-methylfuran-2-one C 6.0 5.4 5.1 5.4 7.0
5 (5H)-furan-2-one C 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.8 4.9
6 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one C 7.9 10.9 10.8 9.1 6.5
7 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one C 3.4 3.0 3.8 5.4 5.9
8 Phenol LH 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0
9 Guaiacol LG 3.4 2.5 2.4 2.2 1.6
10 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one C 1.0 1.1 1.7 2.5 2.7
11 4-hydroxymethyl-1,4-butyrolactone C 2.9 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.9
12 4-methylguaiacol LG 1.3 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.3
13 4-ethylguaiacol LG 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
14 5-hydroxymethyl-2-tetrahydrofuraldehyde-3-one C 1.7 1.5 2.4 2.8 3.0
15 1,4-anhydroarabinofuranose C 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.3
16 4-vinylphenol LH/PCA 9.3 6.3 3.1 2.2 0.8
17 4-vinylguaiacol LG/FA 8.3 5.3 2.9 2.1 0.8
18 Eugenol LG 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0
19 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde C 1.7 3.3 3.6 3.2 4.7
20 Syringol LS 2.9 2.1 1.7 0.8 0.5
21 cis-isoeugenol LG 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
22 1,4-dideoxy-d-glycerohex-1-enopyranos-3-ulose C 0.8 1.0 1.4 2.0 1.7
23 trans-isoeugenol LG 1.5 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.2
24 1,4-anhydroxylofuranose C 2.4 2.1 3.5 2.8 2.4
25 4-methylsyringol LS 1.4 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.1
26 Vanillin LG 1.8 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.3
27 4-ethylsyringol LS 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
28 vanillic acid methyl ester LG 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
29 Acetovanillone LG 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3
30 4-vinylsyringol LS 2.2 1.2 0.7 0.3 0.2
31 Guaiacylacetone LS 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
32 4-allyl-syringol LS 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0
33 Propiovanillone LG 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
34 cis-4-propenylsyringol LS 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0
35 trans-4-propenylsyringol LS 2.0 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.1
36 Levoglucosane C 10.0 15.6 21.6 25.1 27.3
37 syringaldehyde LS 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.1
38 syringic acid methyl ester LS 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
39 acetosyringone LS 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1
40 syringylacetone LS 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
41 propiosyringone LS 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
  % Lignin 40.4 27.9 18.1 12.6 7.1
  % Carbohydrates 59.6 72.1 81.9 87.4 92.9
  Lignin/Carbohydrate ratio 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1
  H 10 7 4 3 2
  G 18 12 9 7 4
  S 12 8 5 3 1
  Syringyl/Guaiacyl ratio 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.4
  (Syringyl/Guaiacyl)except vinyl ratiob 1.0 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.4
  Ph-C0-2/Ph-C3c 5.7 6.0 8.2 9.5 10.9
  % Cα-oxidized lignin 10.2 11.5 15.2 15.2 16.4
  % Cα-oxidized G-units 5.9 6.5 9.4 10.4 11.3
  % Cα-oxidized S-units 4.4 4.9 5.9 4.8 5.1
  1. aC, carbohydrate-derived compounds; LH, p-hydroxycinnamyl lignin-derived compounds; LG, guaiacyl-lignin derived compounds; S, syringyl-lignin derived compounds; PCA, p-coumarates; FA: ferulates. bAll G- and S-derived peaks were used for the estimation of the S/G ratio, except 4-vinylguaiacol (which also arises from ferulates), and the analogous 4-vinylsyringol. cRatio of lignin-derived phenols with none, 1 and 2 carbons in the side-chain to lignin-derived phenols with 3 carbons in the side-chain