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Table 1 Effect of injected DNA concentration on embryo development and transgene expression

From: Optimized production of transgenic buffalo embryos and offspring by cytoplasmic zygote injection

DNA Concentration n N Cleavage(% ± SD) Blastocyst development EGFP+ Blastocysts Net yield EGFP+
(% ± SD)a (% ± SD)b Blastocysts (% ± SD)c
0 ng/μL 3 57 49 (86.0 ± 4.9) 18 (31.6 ± 4.1)d 0 0
5 ng/μL 3 110 83 (75.5 ± 2.1) 28 (25.5 ± 1.7)de 8 (28.6 ± 5.6)d 7.3 ± 1.6
20 ng/μL 3 98 72 (73.5 ± 1.8) 22 (22.4 ± 6.8)de 15 (68.2 ± 5.8)e 15.3 ± 3.7
50 ng/μL 3 106 76 (71.7 ± 5.6) 15 (14.2 ± 3.8)e 12 (80.0 ± 18.0)e 11.3 ± 3.8
  1. n number of independent experiments;a proportion of embryos placed into IVC (N) that developed into D7 blastocysts (B) grade 1–3;b proportion of EGFP+ blastocysts out of total D7 blastocysts;c proportion of EGFP+ blastocysts out of N;d, e rows with different superscripts within a column differ P < 0.05 from non-injected control (‘0 ng/μL’)