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Table 1 Summary of studies showing the applications of AMPs in swine nutrition

From: The application of antimicrobial peptides as growth and health promoters for swine

Antimicrobial peptide and dose Animal and treatments Application effects References
Antimicrobial peptide-A3 (AMP-A3); 60 or 90 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet + 1.5 g apramycin/kg diet and basal diet supplemented with 0, 60 and 90 mg AMP-A3/kg diet in 2 phases (d 0–14 post-weaning: 14.28 MJ/kg ME and 15.5 g/kg lysine; d 15–28 post-weaning: 14.11 MJ/kg ME and 13.5 g/kg lysine) Has beneficial effects on performance, total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, intestinal morphology and intestinal and fecal microflora Yoon et al. 2012 [19]
Antimicrobial peptide-P5 (AMP-P5); 40 or 60 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 1.5 g/kg apramycin, basal diet + 40 mg/kg AMP-P5 and basal diet + 60 mg/kg AMP-P5 in 2 phases (d 0–14 post-weaning: 14.28 MJ/kg ME and 15.5 g/kg lysine; d 15–28 post-weaning: 14.11 MJ/kg ME and 13.5 g/kg lysine) Improves the performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and reduces coliforms Yoon et al. 2013 [4]
Synthetic antimicrobial peptide-A3 or P5 (AMP-A3 and P5); 60 mg AMP-A3 or 60 mg AMP-P5/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 150 mg/kg avilamycin, basal diet + 60 mg/kg AMP-A3 and basal diet + 60 mg/kg AMP-P5 for 28 days Improves the performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and to reduces pathogenic bacteria Yoon et al. 2014 [20]
Antimicrobial peptide colicin E1; 11 or 16.5 mg/kg Weaned pigs fed with diets containing 0, 11, or 16.5 mg colicin E1/kg diet and were orally inoculated with 1 x 109 CFU of each of two F18-positive E. coli strains Improves the performance, reduces incidence of postweaning diarrhe Cutler et al. 2007 [21]
Antimicrobial peptide cecropin AD; 400 mg/kg Weaned barrows fed with basal diet or similar diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 mg/kg kitasamycin plus 800 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or 400 mg/kg cecropin AD and were orally challenged with 109 CFU/mL of E. coli K88 Enhances pig performance through increasing immune status and nitrogen and energy retention as well as reducing intestinal pathogens Wu et al. 2012 [27]
cipB-lactoferricin-lactoferrampin (cipB-LFC-LFA); 100 mg/kg Weanling piglets were challenged with enterotoxigenic E. coli and randomly assigned to four treatment groups fed a maize–soyabean meal diet containing either no addition, cipB at 100 mg/kg, cipB-LFC-LFA at 100 mg/kg or colistin sulfate at 100 mg/kg for 3 weeks Improves performance through an antibacterial effect, the regulation of immune function, improvement of the absorption of Fe and a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea Tang et al. 2009 [5]
Recombinant Lactoferrampin-Lactoferricin; 100 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 0.1 g /kg lactoferrampin-lactoferricin and basal diet + 0.1 g /kg chlortetracycline for 21 days Improves performance and affects serum parameters Tang et al. 2012 [17]
Composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP, consist mainly of antibacterial lactoferrin peptides, along with plant defensins and active yeast); 400 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 0.4% CAP, basal diet + 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, and basal diet + 4 ppm deoxynivalenol + 0.4% CAP for 30 days Improves feed efficiency, immune function, and antioxidation capacity and alleviates organ damage Xiao et al. 2013 [29]
Composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP, consist mainly of antibacterial lactoferrin peptides, along with plant defensins and active yeast); 400 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 0.4% CAP, basal diet + 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, and basal diet + 4 ppm deoxynivalenol + 0.4% CAP for 30 days Improves intestinal morphology and intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and protein synthesis; May repair the intestinal injury induced by DON Xiao et al. 2013 [30]
Composite antimicrobial peptides (CAP, consist mainly of antibacterial lactoferrin peptides, along with plant defensins and active yeast); 400 mg/kg Weanling piglets fed with basal diet, basal diet + 0.4% CAP, basal diet + 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, and basal diet + 4 ppm deoxynivalenol + 0.4% CAP for 30 days Attenuate the metabolic disturbances in AA, lipid, and energy metabolism induced by DON. Xiao et al. 2015 [31]
A mixture of lactoferrin, cecropin, defensin, and plectasin Pigs fed with basal diet, basal diet + 2.0 g/kg of AMPs and basal diet +3.0 g/kg of AMPs for 32 days Improves performance, reduces the incidence of diarrhea, and increases the survival rate of weaned pigs Xiong et al. 2014 [32]