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Table 3 Effects of essential oils and aromatic plants on the microflora in swine and poultry

From: Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review

Feed additive Dose, g/kg Species Measured responses References
Herbal extracts 7,500 Weaned pigs Reduced coliform bacteria counts in fecal; less diverse of microbiota in ileal digesta base on PCR-DGGE Namkung et al. [7]
EO blend 50-150 Weaned pigs Increased Lactobacillus and decreased E. coli counts in feces Li et al. [16]
EO blend 1,000 Weaned pigs Increased Lactobacillus counts Zhang et al. [17]
Chinese medicinal herbs 1,000/3,000 Weaned pigs Increased Lactobacilli counts in ileum and decreased Coliform counts in colon Huang et al. [18]
EO blend 100 Weaned pigs Reduced E. coli and total aerobic bacteria in the rectum; increased Lactobacilli to E. coli ratio in colon Li et al. [19]
Phytogenic additive 50-150 Weaned pigs Microbial counts in feces (aerobes, gram negatives, anaerobes and lactobacilli) didn’t change Muhl and Liebert [48]
EO blend 300 Broiler Decreased intestinal Clostridium, but no effect on total organisms, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Coliforms Kirkpinar et al. [26]
EO 100 Broiler Increase in the mean numbers of bacterial species in the ileal content Amerah et al. [27]
EO blend 1,000 Broiler No change in cecal and fecal Coliforms, Lactobacillus, C. perfringens and total anerobes Cross et al. [28]
Oregano EO 300-1,200 Broiler Decreased cecal E.Coli but no effect for 1200 ppm; no effect on cecal Lactobacilli Roofchaee et al. [29]
EO 125 Broiler No change in cecal total bacteria, Lactobaccilli, Enterococci, Coliforms or Salmonellae colonization. Hong et al. [30]
EO blend 150-500 Broiler Decreased crop Salmonella but no effect for 150 ppm; no effect on cecal Salmonella Alali et al. [31]
Thymol/EO 30 Broiler Increased cecal Lactobaccilli and decreased Coliform but no effect on crop and ileum Ginnenas et al. [35]
Oregano EO 300 Broiler Lower bloody diarrhea, lesion score and oocyst numbers compared to control (E. tenella challenge) Ginnenas et al. [49]
Oregano 330 Broiler Decreased C. perfringens counts in cecum Waldenstedt et al. [50]
EO blend 100 Broiler Reduction of C. perfringens concentration in the jejunum and colon Mitsch et al. [51]
Plant extract 100 Broiler Reduction of E. coli, C. perfringens and fungi and increase of Lactobacillus Jamroz et al. [52]
Oregano EO 0.5-1.25 Broiler Oregano EO exhibited a strong bactericidal effect against Lactobacilli at both doses tested Horošová et al. [53]
EO blend 100 Broiler Increased ileal Lactobacillus counts coupled with decreased E.Coli counts Rahimi et al. [54]
EO 500 Broiler Decreased cecal Staphylococci, Lactobaccilli and Enterobacteriaceae Placha et al. [55]
EO blend 25/50 Broiler Decreased ileo-cecal E.Coli, and no change in Lactobacilli Jang et al. [56]