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Table 5 Chewing activity of cows fed on three total mixed rations of three total mixed rations containing three different sources of non-fiber carbohydrates

From: Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

Items Treatments1 SEM P value
B BC BB
Eating, min/d 257.8a 232.8b 249.4ab 10.272 0.045
Rumination, min/d 338.9b 286.1c 356.1a 7.430 <0.001
Total chewing activity, min/d 596.7a 518.9b 605.5a 10.482 <0.001
Chewing behaviour per different nutrients, min/kg
Eating
DMI 12.19 11.08 11.174 0.552 0.200
NDF 33.70a 30.00b 29.10b 0.972 0.004
peNDFm2 50.55a 45.29b 43.45b 2.430 0.033
peNDF > 83 97.93a 86.75b 92.97ab 4.431 0.002
peNDF > 1.184 50.85 45.20 43.37 4.294 0.063
NFC 31.36 28.46 29.42 1.154 0.088
Starch 54.97b 54.78b 76.98a 4.452 <0.001
NDSC5 89.52a 69.70b 55.55c 3.762 <0.001
Rumination
DMI 16.03a 13.61b 15.95a 0.350 <0.001
NDF 44.30a 36.87b 41.55a 1.561 <0.001
peNDFm 66.45a 55.66b 62.04a 1.902 0.003
peNDF > 8 128.74a 106.61b 132.74a 5.242 0.009
peNDF > 1.18 66.84a 55.55b 61.93a 1.615 0.002
NFC 41.23a 34.98b 42.09a 0.812 <0.001
Starch 72.26b 67.32b 109.91a 6.692 <0.001
NDSC 117.67a 85.66b 79.31c 3.833 <0.001
Total chewing activity
DMI 28.23a 24.69c 26.13b 0.671 <0.001
NDF 78.00a 66.87c 68.06b 2.031 <0.001
peNDFm 117.00a 100.95b 101.61b 3.292 <0.001
peNDF > 8 216.41a 193.35b 225.71a 15.320 <0.001
peNDF > 1.18 117.69a 100.76b 101.43b 3.462 0.006
NFC 72.59a 63.43c 68.94b 1.752 <0.001
Starch 127.23b 122.09b 186.88a 7.860 <0.001
NDSC 207.19a 155.36b 134.86c 6.744 <0.001
  1. a, b, cMeans within a row with different subscripts differ (P < 0.05).
  2. 1Treatments were diets containing barley + basal diet (B), barley and corn + basal diet (BC), and barley and beet pulp + basal diet (BB).
  3. 2peNDFm = physically effective NDF, based on DM retained on sieve 1.18 mm [13].
  4. 3peNDF>8 = physically effective NDF, determined as the proportion of DM retained on sieves of the original version of Penn State particle separator [10].
  5. 4peNDF>1.18 = physically effective NDF, determined as the proportion of DM retained on sieves of the new version of Penn State particle separator [11].
  6. 5NDSC = Neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate.