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Table 1 Composition and analysis of diets fed to Holstein cows during the dry and lactating periods

From: Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

Item Far-off diet Close-up diets1 Lactation diet2
HD MD LD
Ingredients, % DM
  Leymus chinensis hay 42.8 13.3 21.7 31.3 -
  Alfalfa hay - 8.4 8.4 8.4 17.2
  Whole corn silage 24.7 21.0 21.1 21.0 21.0
  Corn 12.0 23.2 14.4 2.0 20.0
  Extruded soybean - - - - 2.6
  Soybean meal 2.1 4.5 4.0 3.7 5.8
  Rapeseed meal 4.5 4.0 4.0 4.0 1.3
  Cottonseed meal 5.0 4.0 4.3 4.5 1.3
  Apple pomace 9.2 5.7 7.3 11.4 2.5
  Whole cottonseed - 3.3 3.3 3.3 10.4
  DDGS 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 10.0
  Palm kernel meal 5.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 -
  Beet pulp meal - - - - 3.5
  Calcium carbonate 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.0
  Close-up premix3 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 -
  Lactation premix4 - - - - 7
  Bergafat5 - 2.2 0.9 - 1.6
  Yeast culture6 0.2 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.4
  Sodium bicarbonate - - - - 0.9
Analysis
  DM, % 51.9 51.5 51.5 51.6 52.1
  CP, % of DM 12.6 14.0 14.0 14.0 18.2
  NDF, % of DM 53.3 37.4 42.9 49.8 31.7
  ADF, % of DM 32.4 23.2 26.8 31.5 19.8
  NFC, % of DM 22.8 35.0 30.4 23.9 36.9
  Crude fat, % of DM 3.1 5.6 4.3 3.3 5.7
  NEL, MJ/kg DM 5.4 6.8 6.2 5.4 7.2
  ME, MJ/kg DM 8.7 10.7 10.0 8.8 11.1
  1. 1HD high energy density diet, MD middle energy density diet, LD low energy density diet.
  2. 2Lactation diet was fed to cows from parturition to 70 d in milk.
  3. 3Close-up premix contained (per kg of premix; DM basis): 2,200,000 IU of vitamin A, 550,000 IU of vitamin D3, 20,000 IU of vitamin E, 2,000 mg of vitamin PP, 3,750 mg Cu, 5,720 mg Mn, 14,850 mg Zn, 150 mg I, 180 mg Se, 120 mg Co.
  4. 4Lactation premix contained (per kg of premix; DM basis): 1,000,000 IU of vitamin A, 280,000 IU of vitamin D3, 10,000 IU of vitamin E, 1,000 mg of vitamin PP, 3,250 mg Cu, 4,800 mg Mn, 12,850 mg Zn, 140 mg I, 150 mg Se, 110 mg Co.
  5. 5Fractionated palm fatty acids (Berg + Schmidt, Hamburg, Germany).
  6. 6Diamond V XP, Diamond V Mills, Inc.